Paolo, as you know I’m from Lucca I know, yes – so I can say that 90% of Lucca companies make Hardware so maybe, there is also someone who will listen to this episode, will see this video more than anything they are companies that make paper, cardboard products and there are also many companies that make machinery for these paper companies, we say, and the question I wanted to ask you is why these companies might need Scrum? in three words it is called “Fourth Industrial Revolution” that is, the Fourth Industrial Revolution is defined as it is no longer the big fish that eats small fish, but the fast fish that eats slow fish isn’t? The industrial revolutions that are studied at school the 1st Industrial Revolution, steam, cotton, agriculture not for self-consumption but for trade, then the peasants who moved into the city and fed the rising industry. The second Industrial Revolution was steel, electricity electricity also civil, not just industrial, therefore the alternating current and therefore all that was heavy industry, then fed by the great wars the third Industrial Revolution, which more or less coincides with the second post-war period, was that of computerization ok? So the digital age. Now we talk about this new industrial revolution it is a new industrial revolution because the changes we are seeing not only in industry, even in society, they have an exponential speed, it is no longer the same as before, before it was linear speed ok? therefore all sectors, any type of sector, today is undergoing transformations transformations in the way things are created, transformations in the way things are consumed transformations also in how we perceive the objects themselves Of the things that were previously considered products, I buy the car, today we already talk about the fact of “Servilitization”, that is a person tomorrow will want to pay a fee to always have a car that works ok? So it’s changing, it’s becoming a service, more and more, things that used to be a durable good therefore it completely changes the dynamics and among the various phenomena that exist beyond the growing complexity of every single product, that is, today if you go to those gentlemen who make paper machinery for the paper industry released a few years ago, it is probably a stupid disconnected machine ok? with fairly linear expectations today, if you go to see new industrial products, they are all interconnected they have a concept for example, we talk a lot about sustainability, so the machines have to learn to consume less, so there is the concept, for example, of connecting all the machines with the cloud measure the telemetry of these machines, and work out ways better settings to consume less, we talk about predictive maintenance and therefore to do predictive maintenance means that the machine understand when is about to break, and it suggest to the operator, to do things in advance that will cost you less. You understand that such a machine, before it was just iron and today it is almost all electronics and software, and there is no simple software just the user interface or the mobile App, we’re talking about artificial intelligence, machine learning algorithms, ok? cloud, big data, these elements put together, on a small industry which previously made only iron products, creates a complexity that is two orders of magnitude more, at minimum so how does a company that is used to thinking linearly, I analyze, take the requisites, build the machine and send it to my client if the features are so complex? It needs something iterative and incremental and therefore they will arrive at the idea that they will need a different process, because that kind of machines there, they no longer have the possibility of being analyzed a priori, but a continuous feedback loop is needed therefore, the topic is: products become more and more complex. The other topic is that customers are increasingly demanding that is, we are used to much faster technologies, like smartphones, to an increasingly excellent user experience, right? you are on the Amazon website, you want to buy a book for your child for € 9.90 and Amazon tells you, if you buy it within a few hours you can have it tomorrow at your home and if you buy it, it arrives! That is, it manages to keep the expectation Now, imagine instead of being at work, in one of these companies, and having to order a few hundred thousand euros raw material or equipment for your company, so it’s not your money, it’s the company money But if you go to these B2B supplier sites, from company to company, can your expectation be less than what you have for a € 9.90 book for your child? No! So that too needs to rethink the way you plan, the way you work in the company, why? Because you have to learn and improve continuously so it has become a race, where everyone runs and the one who runs faster wins. and this already generates the minimum foundations, after which there is the challenge of innovation that is, in the Third Industrial Revolution, those who made innovation won, had a competitive advantage in the Fourth Industrial Revolution it is one who does not innovate who disappears, not that who innovates has an advantage. therefore innovation must be normal, there must be a constant process of innovation in the company so if you don’t restructure your way of working in iterations, where you have the chance to experiment with each iteration you are forced to suffer, you are forced to chase others so all those who don’t want to and clearly if one chases after others always comes second therefore, if you don’t want to end up chasing someone and then be too detached from the group, you need to you restructure yourself to have something of continuous experimentation in your normal process and therefore, these elements put together clearly, you understand that, spotless, it is not that tomorrow morning everyone will want to do Agile, but they are calling me companies in sectors where frankly I never expected to go that from outside you think they are very traditional, very slow, isn’t it? And instead they have a lot of technology on board, a lot of challenges you wouldn’t expect.