How to Start a Podcast: 7 Steps for Podcasting Beginners!

How to Start a Podcast: 7 Steps for Podcasting Beginners!

– Hey everybody. This is Roberto Blake of helping you create
something awesome today. Today, I’m going to talk to you
about how to start a podcast in seven simple steps. This is my simple, seven step process for creating your own podcast. A lot of you ask me, “how
can you create a podcast? “How do I get started? “How do I get it in iTunes? “What hosting do I need? “How much is this going to cost me?” I wanted to make a video that answers those questions for you and gives you a process. I did a really short video on this before, but I want to go a
little bit more in depth. The first thing you need to do is have an idea and a
format for your podcast. That means you have to come
up with a name for your show, a title, and you got to figure out what
the show is going to be about and whether it’s going to be you solo, or with a cohost, or whether you’re gonna do interviews. So you need to figure
out what your podcast is going to be and establish some kind of format. How long do you want this to be? What are you going to
do in terms of topics? Are you going to have segments? You really want to create a structure for your overall show instead of fly by the seat of your pants. On the other hand, some people are really good at flying by the seat of their pants. So just figure out what works for you and establish an idea, concept
and format for your show. In my case, I open the show with an intro then I feature and highlight
an awesome creator of the day, I go into the main topic. I may or may not do a plug for something whether it’s my own thing, a sponsor, or an affiliate, and then, I invite you
guys to leave comments and I close out the show. That’s currently my format. And on rare occasions, I’ll do interviews. So, I’m actually still refining my format and
it’s okay to do that when you’re just getting started. So, that’s my tip number one. My first step for launching your podcast. Step number two is going
to be actually producing your episodes for your show. And what that’s going to require is some podcast gear. In general, you’re going
to need audio equipment. I recommend having a decent
microphone, a pop filter, and some headphones. Possibly an audio mixer. But you don’t really need one. Just depends on what you
want to do with your set up. And you need some type of
audio editing software. I will do a separate video about all this and make tons of gear recommendations, but my entire set up,
both the cheap version and the expensive version is in the description below. If push came to shove though, you can just get a pair of eatbuds and you can use your iPhone and you can use the Voice Memo feature and that would be good enough just to get started. Or you could record
directly to SoundCloud. All of these are options and you don’t have to
make it super complicated if you just want to get started. So, that’s what you’ll need to do. Then, you’ll need to
actually produce your shows. That means you’re going to need to go ahead and record your audio into your software. If you need free software, I recommend a program called Audacity. You can get that on PC and Mac. If you’re a Mac user,
you can use GarageBand. If you’re a PC user, I highly
recommend Adobe Audition. It’s what I use. It’s part of the Creative Cloud. So, those are your audio software. You’re going to want to record into those or on your smartphone and I would recommend
having five or 10 episodes of your podcast already
done, edited and produced before you launch the show. That way, once you go ahead and you
decide distributing in iTunes, you already have some stuff out there. You can go ahead and promote it. I would put the first
four or five episodes out. This will help you get
reviews and recommendations that’s going to get you
into New and Noteworthy, and give your podcast so much more reach. You want to do that as
quickly as possible. So go ahead and have five shows before you get this up in iTunes and go ahead and generate
some traction around it. Then, maybe have a few more episodes. Three to five more episodes that are just sitting in reserve, so you can release those every week and not feel like you’re getting behind. This will give you momentum. This will make it easy to be consistent. So, that’s step number two. Go ahead and actually produce your show. Step number three, add metadata to your podcast. This is really important because a lot of people underestimate how important metadata is
in all of their content. This is the stuff that makes your projects searchable. If you’re doing a video on YouTube, this is the title, the
description and tags. When it comes to a podcast, you have something very similar and in your audio software, this is usually something
that you can go ahead and edit yourself or once it’s on your desktop, you can go ahead and edit
it in the properties. Sometimes, depending on
where you’re uploading it like SoundCloud, you can go ahead and edit
the information there, or once your hosting this
on your WordPress site, you can edit it using the the Power podcast plugin from Blubrry. I think that’s what it’s called. I think it’s called something
like the Powercast plugin. I’ll link it down below. But I just call it the Blubrry plugin because that’s what I know it as from back in the day. And it’s going to help you fill out information about your podcast. It’s going to be able to say that you’re the producer
and the host of the podcast. It’s going to let you give titles and it’s going to also
let you name the show and give a brief description. And I also use the description to put show notes in and that for me is very helpful so those are things you can do. Really pay attention to the
metadata of your podcast because it’s going to help
it show up in Google Search, it’s going to help it show up in iTunes and the other places. It’s just really important. Step number four, create the artwork and
assets for your podcast. This is going to be huge because that artwork is going to help make
your podcast stand out and look different. You can hire someone to do this or you can do it yourself. Maybe you keep it simple. Maybe you use your face. Maybe you put together a very simple piece of text artwork. Just find someway to make
it unique and interesting. I personally recommend hiring
an artist or a designer to put this together for you. The dimensions you need for iTunes is this needs to be 1400 by 1400 pixels. And that’s going to be the square that shows up to represent your podcast
in terms of an image. I also recommend though, getting some general
artwork assets made for this in terms of banners for SoundCloud and for other places that
take wide format banners. Maybe you put together some assets because you want to put together a Facebook page for your podcast or some other social media. These things can all be really important and for the website that your
podcast is going to be on. Which you’re going to need. You still might want some
of these graphical assets. So go ahead and put
together something like that or hire someone to do it for you. Number five, you’re going to need web hosting and media hosting. Most people assume that
they can just get a website and start uploading
their podcast files there and technically you could, but it works better if
you have a media host because if a lot of people start listening and downloading from iTunes, this could crash your website if the files are hosted there. Which is why you want
a separate media host. Think of it in the same way as why we upload videos to YouTube instead of to our own website and .com. A lot of people wanted to do that but they realized it was causing
problems for their website. It’s the same thing with podcasts especially if they get a little bit long, like interviews. So you’ll want a media hosting company. I recommend Libsyn. I also recommend SoundCloud. There are also some free options. There is a free tier of Spreaker. I’m going to link down to my
web hosting recommendations and media hosting recommendations below. But in addition to having your media host, something like Libsyn or
SoundCloud or Spreaker or whoever you want to use, you’re going to need a website to actually have for your podcast. In my case, I have which is another way of
distributing the podcast another way of it being found in search, but it also gives me more
control over everything including the metadata, and it’s an easy way for me to distribute to iTunes, SoundCloud,
Stitcher Radio, TuneIn all those things because you need an
RSS feed to distribute. I’ll get to that in the next step. But this is why you need
both a web hosting company and a media hosting company. It’s also going to give
you more opportunities to monetize your podcast in terms of advertisements,
sponsors, affiliate links, or selling your own product or service. So, I know it’s another expense. It doesn’t have to be too expensive, but I recommend having both. Web hosting companies I recommend if you’re a podcaster are Bluehost and you also could consider HostGator. I’ll link to those in the
description below for you guys. All the resources that
I’m talking about here will be linked whether it’s gear or services or other assets that you need. Distributing your podcast in iTunes. To distribute your podcast in iTunes, you’re going to need to submit it. I highly recommend that
by the time you do this you have five episodes
that are already produced and in the can. The easiest way to distribute
your podcast through iTunes is to go ahead and use the
Blubrry WordPress plugin on your website and use that to distribute your podcast. You’re going to link your
media of hosting files over to this and it’s going to be able to get those every time that you upload a new one. It’s gonna go ahead and pull that into what’s called an RSS feed which is Really Simple Syndication and that’s going to update to iTunes. There may be a delay
on this by a few hours, a few minutes, it just depends. And you’ll see that. iTunes does have to approve your podcast and you’re going to have to
give them some information that allows for that. But once you’re distributing to iTunes, it’s the best way to get
your podcast discovered and downloaded. The other reason that I
recommend the Blubrry plugin for WordPress is it will give you detailed information regarding your statistics
when it comes to your podcast. This is going to be really helpful when it’s time to get
sponsors and to make deals. So, you’re going to want those things. I would also say that
you should distribute it beyond iTunes. You should put it in
the Google Play store, you should put it in Tunein, you should put it in Stitcher Radio. Let people choose where they want to consume your podcast. One of the other things I would recommend about potentially hosting with Libsyn is if you pay a little bit more, they give you your own app and you can use your own app and get people do download it and get them really
engaged with your podcast. And so this can be another
way to get distribution. It could be another asset for you. So, don’t just look at budget solutions when it comes to the hosting
and the distribution side, really think about the long game or remember that you could always change these things down the road if your finances allow for it. So, that’s going to be
important to keep in mind here. Distribution is going to be
make or break for your podcast. Number seven, get reviews, get ratings and promote your podcast. I highly recommend that
you use social media to engage people your podcast ask for feedback and that you also encourage
people to review your podcast and leave ratings. This is going to be especially helpful when it comes to getting
traction in iTunes and you want to do this
within the first two weeks that you’re in iTunes as much as possible, to break
into New and Noteworthy. When I was putting out the Create Something
Awesome Today podcast, this was something I focused on heavily. So, that’s why I insist
that you do as many episodes before you launch as possible just because it’s going to really help you with that momentum early on and you’ll have more episodes to promote. If you just decide to release one episode and then you keep doing it week after week then you’re going to close
that two week window. You’re not going to have enough there. That’s why I think you
start with five to 10 and then you start releasing multiple episodes a week to
start your podcast at launch, and then you can go to a
weekly format or schedule once you have that momentum in place. So just keep that in mind and that’s going to play a huge role here. I would recommend in
the first few episodes that very early in those episodes within the first three or five minutes that you go ahead and ask people to give you feedback, number one and also encourage them to
review and to rate in iTunes or you can do that the
closing of your podcast. A lot of people who listen to podcast tend to listen to the very end as long as its not an
extraordinarily long show, so I think that you can do it at the end and get away with that if your show is maybe
no more than 15 minutes. So, these are things that
are going to help you early on and in the long run with your podcast. I hope this helps. Those are my seven steps for launching your podcast. I’m going to give you a bonus tip. A bonus step if you will. Number eight, have a business and monetization strategy for how you make money in your podcast. Having a website means that
you can do affiliate links, it also means you can do
Google Banner advertisements and depending on where
you’re distributing, I use SoundCloud a lot but I also use other places. If you’re doing your show notes and you put affiliate links to the gear you’re using for your podcast or books that you recommend, et cetera, that’s a huge opportunity
to make some money on your podcast prior to getting sponsors, I also recommend that if
you have your own product or service or email list, you link out to that as well. And that you promote
those things in your show. This is going to put you in a position to where you’re making money. Also, you can use Patreon to ask people to support your show. Especially since it doesn’t have ads automatically in the way
that a YouTube video does. I’ve actually shifted my
Patreon strategy from YouTube to focusing exclusively on the Create Something
Awesome Today podcast. So, that is a model that
I think will help you especially early on when
you’re just getting started. Well, I hope this works for you guys in terms of a complete guide to initially launching your podcast. If you have questions, leave those in the comments
section down below. Links to everything I mentioned here, tons of resources will
be linked up for you guys in the description, so make sure you’re checking that out. That supports the channel, that supports my podcast. If you want to check out the Create Something Awesome Today podcast you can check it out by just
doing a search in iTunes, Stitcher, SoundCloud, Google Play and it’s right there for you or you can go to just like this YouTube channel or you can go to to check out the Create
Something Awesome Today podcast in iTunes. Like this video if you like it. Don’t forget to subscribe. Check out the other awesome
stuff on the channel. As always you guys, thanks so very much for watching. And don’t forget, Create Something Awesome Today. Take care.

100 thoughts on “How to Start a Podcast: 7 Steps for Podcasting Beginners!

  1. If you want to check out the Create Something Awesome Today Podcast on iTunes go to
    For those of you who need Media Hosting and Analytics for your Podcast here is a Promo Code for a FREE MONTH of Blubrry

  2. This was a very helpful video Roberto! I am in the process of purchasing my equipment and I have my rough draft format ready to go. But this made me think about a better strategy prior to release with several episodes ready to go before launching. Great advise, thank you and good luck with your endeavors.

  3. Your videos are always very well detailed and really helpful. Just wanted to take a second to say I really appreciate what you do.

  4. This is absolutely a complete guide, thank you. I discovered your videos about one year after starting my YouTube channel. I cannot tell you how much it has all grown since I started following your advice. Let's just say that it took me 1 year to get 3,000 subscribers and after watching your videos it took only about six to seven months to get another 10,000 subscribers. For instance, I re-branded my videos, after learning from you that they needed pictures, etc., and one of my videos went from 2,000 views to almost 500K views! Just by changing the cover!!!! So, of course I went searching on your channel to figure out how to add a podcast to my portfolio and viola here it is! I've also purchased your YouTube Starter Kit before I realized it was free with my subscription to TubeBuddy that I followed your link to purchase. TubeBuddy has been an amazing edition to my growth and management process. I find your videos encouraging and competent and I've been able to experience growth as a pretty old person YouTube content creator. I've even had the benefit of one of your channel reviews. For some reason I cannot send you money through super chat and send a comment too. The program is broken for me. So I just sent you the money with no comment but you figured out that I wanted a channel review and you did it. Thanks much! You pretty much said what I thought you might as I've been watching your channel reviews for quite some time, so I'm making those improvements. Anyway, thanks again! I'll have my podcast up soon based on this video.

  5. Awesome advice, I’ve had mine for a year now and will use some of what you said for mine! If you all want to check it out it’s a sports podcast with my cousin called a “Family Divided” podcast

  6. This was really a great video! I'm in the process of starting a podcast and there were some super helpful tips. Thanks!!

  7. What a informative videos. My mother and I are in the process of planning to start podcast. We both already have some built social media followers. I had no idea how overwhelming having podcast can be in regards to equipment needed, sound and uploading. One big question I have not heard anyone address is rubbing podcast live on reddit, YouTube, and of course now twitch. Does it hurt to video the podcasts not sure if it may confuse followers if it is available in so many other social media outlets. For example I really enjoy h3h3 he livestreams and post video afterwards on YouTube. Anyway thank you for all the amazing advice I want to make sure when I start it is correct as possible.

  8. You said that a podcaster needs a website. Is a facebook page good enough? I think I've seen some podcasters use that. What's your opinion?

  9. Bro, This was an outstanding video. I have been a silent follower for years now and my youtube has grown to 92k. I would love to interview you or chat with you as i am about to change direction with my channel. You have been a great inspiration.

  10. I think you were Great! I plan on starting my Podcast in July, and I have no clue. Would like to talk to you or send emails back and forth on your cost to coach me on setting up. You can send an email to me; [email protected] Thanks.

  11. Things that I've learned as a new podcast host:

    1. BUDGET & HOSTING: SoundCloud gets expensive really fast but it is a good place to establish an RSS feed to plug into iTunes and other podcast-related platforms. If money isn't a problem for you, SoundCloud would be ideal. If you don't have money for SoundCloud ($15/month or $100+ per year) you'll only be able to upload 3 hours of podcast/audio material. My personal suggestion would be Anchor FM because it's very similar to SoundCloud in functionality and options and has no upload limits or associated costs that I'm aware of at this time. It also allows you to distribute your podcast to iTunes, Stitcher, Google and more. SoundCloud only allows sharing to Facebook and Twitter and their customer support is terrible. Good luck getting results from SoundCloud support. Anchor FM also allows you to establish a customizable link and an RSS feed. You also get an embed link. Youtube is a last resort if you know how to convert your audio to video and upload but I think Youtube still has a limit on the lenth of videos you can upload so if you're the type who does a one or two hour podcast, this may or may not work for you. Spreaker IS NOT FREE. It starts out free but then you have to pay once you exceed the free upload limit just like SoundCloud, Podbean, Libsyn, Stitcher and PodOmatic. At some point or another you're going to have to make monetary investments in your podcast if you're serious about it.

    2. SOUND: A good microphone is key and you'll need money for this unless you don't really care how good your audio sounds. However, you should have consideration for your audience because good quality sound means a lot to a lot of people. The built in microphone on a smartphone usually doesn't produce high quality audio but if that's all you're working with, that's fine because you can always run your audio files through Audacity (which is totally free) and apply noise reduction and other digital remastering functions to improve the sound quality. At the same time, you'll probably want to download VoiceMeeter and Virtual Audio Cable if you can get it to work right for you and if you're running your podcast from your computer. Remember to talk about a foot away from your microphone, have all fans and noisy machines turned off and try to use a small area (closet or booth) that's treated with acoustic foam. Acoustic foam gets expensive really fast but make a pretty good difference in sound quality. It will keep your voice from bouncing all over the place and isolate your sound. I built a recording booth out of PVC pipe, corrugated plastic boards, cardboard, zip ties, acoustic foam, glue and carpet tiles for the floor and it works very well for vocal isolation. It wasn't cheap at all but I really wanted top notch sound. The most difficult part is getting your audio and recording settings right. I've been having issues with getting VoiceMeeter and Audacity to work cohesively but I'll eventually get it just right. Good thing is that I'm getting close after about 2 months of tweaking my sound and working on the right pitches, ranges audio settings and equipment adjustments. Recommended microphones: 1. AT2020 USB- This microphone is very good for the price and the price usually ranges between $130-$140. Hurry because this mic has been discontinued and many people are still buying it. If you get it on Amazon, you can purchase a 3 year protection plan with it for like $5 or so. 2. Samson GoMic- This is a small and inexpensive USB microphone that produces very good sound for the size and the price. Last time I checked, it costs between $30-$40 on Amazon. A lot of people say that the Blue Yeti and Blue Snowball (same price range as AT2020 USB) are great but comparison videos on here prove that the AT2020 USB produces better sound quality.

    3. PROMOTING & ADVERTISING: Your goal is to get as many listeners as possible and you cannot expect this to happen overnight. Most people have short attention spans due to modern technology and other reasons and you have to accept the fact that it's going to take a while to gain a lot of followers. A lot of people stress the importance of building an email list. I've done this already but it's not very effective even if you give them an incentive to sign up. Social media can be good for this if you pick a topic that's popular or controversial enough for people to pay attention to.

    4. COMPETITION: Something else to consider because you have to think about all of the other people who may be doing a podcast about the same thing(s) that you are. Many people will already be well established so you really have to try hard to stand out from the competition and make sure that people do not forget about you.

    5. LISTEN TO YOURSELF: This may sound silly but it's a key factor. Before going public with your podcast, you should do a couple of test episodes to see how you sound and which words you say too frequently or say with a strong accent. This will give you the opportunity to assess and improve or correct your communication skills, grammar, dialect, accent, speech impediments and tone. When listening to myself, I've noticed that there's certain words that I repeat far too often, varying tone and sometimes I'll get caught up on certain words when talking too fast.

    6. WEBSITE: Make sure that you build a website or have someone with the proper skills build one for you. If you have a big budget, this will not be an issue. If you don't have a lot of money, you can create a free website/blog on You can also purchase a domain within WordPress to make it an official dot com site. Here's where we come back to SoundCloud: a key feature on SoundCloud (free and paid) is the embed in WordPress feature because you can do this on a free WordPress site. Other sites like Stitcher, PodoMatic and Spreaker only allow you to embed the audio player on (paid) sites. If you choose to build a free WordPress site, your URL will look like this: Once more, you can eliminate the "wordpress" part of your URL link by purchasing your own domain name (dot com) for $18 per year. Keep in mind that you'll get a lot of spam emails after you buy your domain. Most people on Youtube who give tutorials on building a "free website" don't tell you that if you sign up with your real information you'll receive relentless calls from unknown phone numbers from all over the world and the site is not guaranteed to last. Some even show you how to crack the WordPress system to get a paid account for free but this is ineffective because WordPress will catch on and you have to run your domain and host name through a bunch of third party sites that will screw you over in the long run. WordPress is the best free option.

  12. Great show! I’m thinking about doing an English language podcast for my adult students and I can use all of the advice you offer. Your voice is so clear and easy to follow. Thanks..Barb

  13. How much does it cost to start a Radio Podcast Company, for sales and Instructions, for a product line. Team Cost. Full Podcast Company. Cost $$. average cost. Marketing and Sales for customers support also. nice show.

  14. ;o) Thanks Roberto, very informative and the timing could not have been perfect. I'm officially launching my Podcast on July 31st, National Orgasm Day. I have been approved in iTunes and Google Play (Oralicious – A Tale of Sex). Thks again Roberto.

  15. I know I’m late to the party but this is great info and much appreciated , do you have any suggestions for live sound effects ?

  16. Yo Thanks for the great video! Just have sth to ask, what is required to play copyrighted music in the podcast? It's very common to play nice songs in the podcast, yet it is scary because no one wants to violate the copyright.

  17. Help. When you conduct an interview BOTH the interviewer and guest require headphones in order for the guest to hear the questions being asked and to cancel out the ambient noise as well as avoid having to do a lot of post production work?

  18. I have a question about multiple speakers on a podcast, if my two friends and I want to have a radio show type format, would each of us need a microphone? In that case would we need to plug each microphone into the computer?

  19. I can't tell you how ignorant I feel. This man is Brilliant and Knowledgeable. This is like 2 lives beyond me. Don't know if I have enough time in my life, but will try

  20. I have to say @robertoblake is the most awesome guy to look for if your starting in media, I'm starting my youtube /podcast / Blog and he has taken me the entire way through. Thanks!

  21. I have some questions…what's the best PC for podcasting….right now you can hear some slight interference on my show. Using goldwave for recording software with a headset and mic. Really need to fix my audio issues as I am a live show.

  22. If it’s too much, where can I get 1 on 1 help to create my own podcast? I also don’t know how to create the artwork

  23. Thank you
    I am still trying to figure this podcast thing out…I’ve been told by many, this is where I should start my talk show, “TalkinTRUTH with Miss VAL” so much to learn and do, I know I can talk and kind words, positivity can go a long way, it changes lives. Thank you again.

  24. I almost never comment. Excellent quality concise and to the point content. Loved it!You are great. Thank you!

  25. that was GREAT, brotha! Ive been seeing u around (social, etc) for yearrrrs. Didnt know u had a podcast. This advice is awsesome. THANKS!!

  26. i watched this video a couple times before and I finally took your advice and started my own podcast!! (its called "Living and Coping" if anyone is interested) the only advice i didnt take was pre filming episodes sksk, but thank you for inspiring me to follow my dream

  27. I will inscript again in futurue. Organizing my bookmarks now. Your are a great channel for me. Congrats from Brazil!

  28. Sooooo I found you when I started YouTube 3 years ago, and now I’m dabbling in podcasting and I searched your archive. You never fail me! You have continuously helped me grow my brand

  29. How does having my YouTube RSS feed help me? Will YouTube hit me for duplicate content if I load the audio from my podcast to YouTube which is exactly the same is my video? Will I get him for duplicate content if I use the audio from my video for my podcast?

  30. Love the vid. The only thing I would caution you on is the info you mentioned about iTunes N&N. Putting episodes in iTunes all at one time and getting reviews doesnt put one's podcast in N&N. Apple has stated that it is a combination of things not just episodes and high reviews. I had a few of my fellow podcasters get into N&N after a 3 year time period. I have seen other fellow podcaster get into N&N after 4 years. None of their podcast made it to N&N when they first started and they did exactly what you stated. They put 5 episode in iTunes all at once and had a few left to upload. They got almost 3000 five star reviews and still did not make it to N&N. It wasn't until three years later. Every podcaster needs to know that putting 5+ episodes in iTunes and great reviews is not the deciding factor to getting into iTunes. iTunes has its own combination of things that they do to make a podcast N&N.

  31. So do you get paid if anybody clicks on any of the Amazon links in your description? Or do you only get paid if they actually purchase something directed from one of your links?

  32. "Hi, I was wondering what if your not very computer savvy?" two of my friends and I are going to start a Podcast interviewing up and coming Musicians. My friend wants me to help him work stuff on the computer with recording and I'm guessing mixing?" you mention someone needs to approve of the Podcast. What does that cost?" and how do you get paid?" meaning who comes up with the money for doing the show?" meaning who pays us for interviewing these Bands?" I have to get this down. I will be doing things as my friend is interviewing Bands and I will be interviewing the Bands too. I already have some Bands to interview. I'm guessing you use the program and hit record and it records the Bands you are interviewing with the equipment we have?" I have to get familiar with this whole thing first. I just wonder your thoughts. It seems like so much to remember. What do you suggest I do?" I look forward to your message sincerely Dana!

  33. I wanted to mention to you about Anchor Podcast. They pay you and it's really an awesome platform. What are your thoughts on Anchor Podcast?

  34. I definitely watched a cool 5 videos before subbing. You are so awesome and simple. Thank you for your assistance, I'll check back in when I hit my 1,000!

  35. Im def gonna get the audio Technica ATR2100 mic.. Id buy 3 of them before Id buy the Yeti.. the yeti is beautiful.. I like that the AT2100 just works

  36. Great stuff, I am trying to get started myself, Have the equipment just need to get the hosting and website up. Love the Star Wars stuff too!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *