How to Sell Anything to Anybody (Keynote Presentation)

How to Sell Anything to Anybody (Keynote Presentation)

My honor to introduce derek halpern to the stage And we first came across derek halpern during a meeting with milker where he was teaching us the fine arts of reducing discounts He pops up a video and pulled up YouTube and there was Derek telling us about how to reduce discounts and it was great fantastic we said who is this guy So when we were looking at speakers and things that we could do that were innovative and innovative types of people Derek was the first on the list so Derek is all about helping sales people make more sales Forbes has named him as an expert on consumer psychology and Inc has named him one to follow in 2015 So if you’ve ever done a youtube search on sales advice he would show up and many of you have probably already seen him He’s reached over five million viewers and I’ve got like 200 Facebook friends so in comparison. That’s a big difference so It’s my privilege to introduce Derek Halpern to the stage there What’s up It’s kind of a tough spot to be standing between you and dinner learning about an exotic trip and A Great Gatsby party because I don’t know about you. I’d rather save her champagne bottles than listen to another person speak after four days And What I think makes this even tougher is I suspect some of you aren’t that friendly? Yesterday I Got to LA walked in the hotel saw April April said oh you’re here. Just in time. We’re having lunch. Why don’t you go out get some food and meet some of the reps? Sure so I walk outside I walk up to the first table that I see I see four empty chairs and I asked this this nice man to my right. It’s the DJ. I Asked him hey is anyone sitting here. Do you mind if I sit here? He kind of looks up slowly? huh All right, maybe it’s gnar like that it was more like Huh, I guess he didn’t want me to sit next to him so I walked away It turned out he didn’t know I was speaking today, and I really don’t blame him I was wearing a black t-shirt and black sweatpants and I didn’t have a badge around my neck for all he knew I was trying to scam a free lunch so I understand why he did that and as salespeople We kind of all understand this type of reaction I mean Have you ever walked into a dental office? Introduce yourself and the office managers snarled at you say yes Yes That’s probably where he learned how to do that snarl actually So I understand why he did that? But as salespeople We need to push through that first reaction We need to turn someone who is being a little bit difficult Into someone who will eventually give us some money for something We need to turn a difficult prospect into a raving Customer and that’s what we’re gonna talk about today The side liners how to turn difficult prospects into raving customers So let’s get started Imagine that this is a book about dental implants now imagine on your next sales call You walk into the dentist’s office prepared for a one on one But you get stifled by the gatekeeper so you leave the booklet behind has this happened yes, yes but now Let’s imagine that a few hours later You get a phone call it’s the surgeon on the line and she wants the place of $50,000 order The first question is is what’s in that booklet? How did this turn this difficult prospect? into a raving customer and How did it happen without ever talking to that person? Without doing anything other than just leaving the booklet This sounds like a weird scenario has this ever happened to you. No, right almost never But this is exactly how I learned how to sell and it’s how I sell the stuff that I sell today Just to walk you through it quickly Here’s a little bit of insight into my business People will go to my website, and I will ask them to sign up to a newsletter And I’ll try to give them something like a free ebook in exchange for signing up to my newsletter I’ll then send them valuable content like a blog post or video There similar to the video that they used to find me in the first place And I’ll maybe send them some more videos, and then eventually After a few weeks, I’ll ask them to buy something Now how do I ask them to buy something? I’m not calling them up. I’m sending them to a page that It’s about 30 pages long So I’ll get you on my mailing list I’ll send you free videos and content, then eventually I’m going to ask you to read a 30-page long page That’s how all my sales get generated a lot of people think Well who reads that much and I always tell them Only the buyers the people who want to buy this the people who you’re talking to but still While it works really well you have to be very strategic about it and don’t get me wrong It works really well every single day of the week this happens people opt into a newsletter They get free content over the course of a few weeks And I ask them to buy something and this is like an example This is from a week ago when I was putting this slide together. Just a random day of sales of twelve thousand dollars came in Automatically just by sending these people to these long pages Using this like magic booklet to convert a difficult prospect into a customer Now you’re probably wondering well first. You don’t sell things on the Internet, so what does this have to do with you? Well the same process I use to sell stuff online can also be used to make each and every one of you a better salesperson and Maybe you’ll even create that dental booklet one day that closes the sale for you, so you don’t have to Now I want to share more about that in a second first. I want to introduce myself a little bit. I’m Derek Halpern I’m the founder of social triggers, and I started this company about three years ago when I grew it to a multi-million dollar company I’m not sharing this to brag I’m just showing you that I know how to sell and that’s what I’ve been doing for the last by eight years of my life And how do I do this I leverage the proven sales principles? I’m going to share today Plus I also create a bunch of YouTube videos. This is how I get people’s attention It’s how I got April’s attention, and I think it was melting who found my first video and shared it around with everyone There’s a video about why I think discounting is for idiots And this is the video that they shared then that’s why I’m here speaking today Just to give you some numbers about 175,000 people subscribe to my newsletter and even though, and I’ve reached over 5 million people and my original bio is 2.5 million But I checked this morning. It was more than 5 million and Here’s what I’ve discovered. I can tell you one thing for certain. I’ve got 63 thousand fans on Facebook which is 10,000 more than Nobel biocare? No one I can tell you this is does not correlate to how much money you make Cuz if I was making no Abell money I would have a gold chain with the golden statue out of myself hanging from my neck right now But the bottom line is I’m sales guy, and I live and die by my ability to persuade people to give me money now When you sell you probably hear things like why should I buy this from you when I could find the same thing for cheaper have you heard this before say yes or Maybe I don’t need this right now I already use something similar, and it works yes, yes How do I know I can trust you and your company if you heard this before? yes, I Heard something bad about your products, and I’ll never use them Whether or not. It’s true There’s always someone that’s gonna try and rain on your product parade right What are some other examples does anyone else have any other examples of things they’ve heard or? Reasons why people don’t buy shoot your hand up That guy in the back Right there in the yellow. I think or on my blinds No I Mean we’ve all got it the list goes on whether its price we’re too expensive Yeah, or just like what you said. There’s you know that we wouldn’t get the same thing for cheaper Uh-huh or it’s you know I’m upset about a past experience of course there’s another one that Way I don’t like you I hear that all the time we’re gonna get some closer a minute I Don’t want to switch right now retiring soon anyway So sorry I didn’t hear you. I’m retiring soon anyway. I’m retiring soon anyway It’s like it’s an excuse to not learn how to do your job better almost very interesting now While some we can make fun of these comments. We can laugh about them and We know they’re not true Just because they say them doesn’t mean it’s true and just because they believe them doesn’t mean it’s true And it’s our job to try and convince these people otherwise But in what I do, I almost never hear that All I get is something like 700 people visit my website and seven people bought six hundred and ninety three people didn’t They have an objection. I don’t hear it if they have any questions They’ll just answer it themselves and X out my website, and they’ll never come back. I don’t get to have that interaction So now how can my experience with selling which is almost seemingly totally different from yours How can this help you be a better salesperson? Well, this is the system that I use but before I build this I take the time to research my customer and My goal is to know him better than he knows himself my goal is if I ever sat down with one of my prospects and they’re considering to purchase one of my products I Literally want to be able to talk to that person and know all their answers that they’re gonna say before they even start to say it and In what I do, it’s essential that I do this because I don’t get to have that conversation I can’t answer anything on the fly I have to know what they’re wondering before it happens I Have to know their hopes their dreams their fears, and what their objections are If I don’t do this, I’m never gonna make any sales and today. I want to show you What I discovered about why people buy and? What I discovered about why people don’t buy and as you’ll soon see it applies to everyone? Now there are three types of people who you will encounter when you’re selling and To really bring this to life, I want to show you some examples Here’s one type of person you will encounter so reply to an email someone saw me speak at a conference and they were like oh you’re just as bitey in real life if I ask this person to Buy something I’m going to get them to buy it this can be very easy that person is a buyer The second type of person you’ll encounter are people like this I spoke at this event called social media marketing world that person loved my presentation This person was also in the audience and she decided to give me some feedback After hearing him speak. I thought he was arrogant and an elitist basically, and I’m sad to see his true colors She hates me if I ever ask this person to buy anything. There’s no way I can convince them to give me money ever so there’s two people the buyers the non buyers, and there’s a third type of person a person that I call a Side liner as you can see here’s what they said I hate to admit it But I was a little skeptical of you when I first started following your blog. I almost removed myself from your list It’s a side liner But I gave you a shot and now I realize that I actually like you. I turned a side liner into a buyer now This is an interesting idea because the side liners are the difficult prospects But if you know how to talk to them the right way You can turn them into one of your best customers They’re the difficult prospects that you could turn into your best customers There are some people you will never win with and you all know better to just stop talking to that person maybe You’ll contact him every few months Just in case they had to change a heart or maybe you’re hoping that they had a bad experience with another company But you know deep down that person is never gonna deal with you, and you try not to waste your time That’s the instant non buyer Then there’s the people who already know you already like you all their friends Already like you and you know that person is gonna be very easy to persuade to buy But you’re gonna find that most people you encounter are gonna. Be these side liners the people who Need a little push Before they’re ready to give you money Now as I said? There’s the three type of people the instant non buyers, and I always view all sales on a chart that I call the yes line The closer you are to the yes line the more likely you are to buy The further you are from the yes line the less like you are to buy The instant bought nine buyers are obviously way below the yes line the instant buyers are very close to it the side liners are right In the middle these are the people you can convert if you put your mind to it so meet mister doctor nice hair He currently places a hundred implants each year, and he stops his inventory with a low-priced competitor Now obviously, it’s gonna take some work for you to convince him to spend more money on your implants But you know that this type of competitive conversion could happen if you talk to him to the right way you start Explaining the difference we like I think it’s chair time And how that could lead to more chair time on lower quality stuff or whatnot you know you can get if you persist Here’s another example doctor a little bit of hair He places 75 implants each year But after talking to him you realize his smallest one is a 3.4. And you have a 3.0 So you might offer him that point-o as a way to get your foot in the door? But here’s someone else that you know that you could potentially turn him from the sidelines to a buyer with some work which wits with some follow up with some more information and the third type of person Will be dr. Lots of hair she places no implants each year, but she wants to start Again, she might not know the difference between a low-cost provider and a high-cost provider But these are the people that you might be encountering when you start selling Now the goal is is to make sure that When you’re prospecting and when you’re trying to make these sales The goal is to make sure you’re spending all of your time on people who are legitimately Side liners not Pete you don’t want to chase down someone who’s never gonna buy I always hear that expression you really He’s so good at selling. He can sell ice to an Eskimo you heard that before yes Why would you want to do that? I want to sell him heat? He’s a lot easier to sell that guy heat than ice or like I want to sell someone who’s drowning some oxygen That’s the guy I want to sell to it’s just a lot easier So you want to make sure in your prospecting you’re focusing on selling people what they already want Now they may not realize they want it yet, but you definitely don’t want to trick them into wanting something They don’t want because then they’re gonna be unhappy with you They’re gonna talk bad about you, and I guess when I did some pre-work before this conference I spoke to some territory reps and managers I Guess all surgeons talk, so you don’t want them talking badly about you Before you even get your foot in the door Now this is why you do want to focus on these side liners the people who will buy Because the instant buyers will buy the instant non buyers will never buy the side liners are the people who could buy should buy But haven’t bought yet Now let’s go a little bit deeper What stop these side liners from buying from you? Now we kind of went through some of the objections that people have to your products price Cheaper competitive they’re already using someone else and it’s working just fine. Why should I fix what’s not broken? we already went through these ideas of what stops people from buying from you, but I wasn’t happy With those as the only reasons And the reason why I wasn’t happy is because we all know that when someone says something like it’s price There might be something else going on Maybe they’re scared of change Have you seen this before people were scared of change like the people who? Don’t you know I’m retiring in a few years. Why should I learn something new? We know there’s some deep-seated psychological fears here and it’s not as simple as what they’re telling us that face value and as sales reps It’s up to you to figure out what that is? Do you all do this yes? Yes? now after analyzing 17 industries I discovered that there are four Universal reasons why people don’t buy and I call these reasons the side liners the first one is the indifference The second is the skeptic the third is the warrior and the fourth is the procrastinator these are the universal reasons? Why people are trying to not give you money? If you think they should? Let’s go into a little bit more detail on How these people come to these decisions and then provide you with the tools you need to overcome them What’s artheon different have you ever been on a sales call thinking it would be a perfect fit you Know they can benefit from what you’re offering them But they’re just not seeing it the way you’re seeing it has this happened say yes, yes the indifferent side liners Aren’t buying because they’re thinking do I really need this Or do I even have a problem right now? Why fix what isn’t broken or does this really matter to me? They might even say something like nobody’s ever asked me for an implant before why should I start offering them? The indifferent doesn’t have to remain indifferent So here’s what you have to do if you want to find someone who is indifferent about your products You want to find something they do care about and then show them how? What you sell can help them with what they already care about? It sounds simple, but let me Give you an example in this hundred-year-old book by Robert Collier He’s a direct mail advertiser if you’re ever wanting to learn how to sell studying those dudes from a hundred years ago that? Got their chops selling by sending people spam mail is a good place to start so if they can convince people to buy you know Anyone can convince anyone to buy anything? he talked about this book called the book of etiquette and When this book was first released in the early 1900’s it? Never sold, no one bought it. No one was going to the store and buying the book of etiquette Then one day this guy Nelson doubleday bought the rights to the book of etiquette And he was able to sell a million copies of it How did he do that how did he take a book that never sold ever it was a dud it was so bad that The publisher wanted to sell the rights to Nelson immediately And then as soon as Nelson got his hands on this book she sold a million copies of it What do you think he did does anyone have any ideas? Change the cover copy you said or cover Change the cover That could be one thing as well Change the name These are all things if you change the cover change the name that it could help impact sales because People buy things based on first impression, just like I got judged at the lunch table because of my sweatpants People judge books based on book covers. It makes sense, but let me tell you what he did Instead of telling people here’s how to learn the book of etiquette. He told a story in Direct Mail advertisements that said things like why I cried after the ceremony or Why they all laughed at me or why she blushed with shame? The same book how to be proper He sold by appeal by appealing to people’s deep-seated need To be liked by their peer groups The same book went from not selling to selling a million copies and all he did was Appeal to people’s desire to avoid embarrassment It’s kind of interesting how you can turn some a product, that’s not selling it all into one of the best-selling books of that Time just by changing how you present this book to people? And the bottom line is No one wakes up and thinks Look. I never woke up in the morning and was like hey. I need to get some etiquette in my life Like I can’t remember the last time I ever thought of that ever But people do worry about being made fun of when you appeal to that innate desire You can get people to buy and That’s what Doubleday did he made the indifferent who previously didn’t care about a book He made that indifferent person care by changing how he spoke about the book Let’s take it back to dr. Nice hair he uses low-cost implants. He cares about money obviously Talking science and innovation with him is Hopeless you can give him 3500 research studies showing how great your product is this guy does not care his haircuts are expensive? You got to talk money with him to win him over Now a lot of people and it’s not just newer reps that do this I even make this mistake, too Sometimes we think just because we care about it. They should care about it too and If you’ve ever been in an argument with your significant other I know You’ve been through this exact same situation Just because you care in the room doesn’t mean the person you’re talking to cares And you want to make sure you’re talking to what they care about he likes money talk money Doctor a little bit of hair has never placed a 3.0. You have a 3.0. He likes money Well 3.0 is a new income stream. He likes quality of care 3.0. Solves a problem. He currently can’t solve there’s different ways to present the products you have to people and Make sure you’re appealing not to here’s how great our product is Here’s how great the titanium alloy is for our implants, but instead you’re appealing to what he cares about I? Interviewed about six territory reps before I came here and about a week ago And I was talking to a Scott Lynch, and I’ll have this up later in the presentation, but I was talking to Scott Lynch And I asked him how did she convince people who would be? Indifferent or people who don’t want to buy ass and how he would convince them to buy or how would he convinced him to switch from a low-cost implant to a high-cost implant and he gave a very interesting quote to me and he said I Want to find out what he cares about if he has a daughter as an example I would say you wouldn’t send your daughter to college and a beater car Would you what if she got broken down on the side of the road? you wouldn’t be able to sleep at night and He said he likes to use these unrelated metaphors as a way to get these people Thinking about treating their patients better This is something that you should be doing as well Now let’s go with dr. Lots of hair the same applies Never talk about what you sell don’t talk about all the research and innovation or anything like that Unless they ask for it if they ask you Well, how do I know that? This is a proven implant. That’s when you can pull out the riche research and provide it to them But you don’t want to lead with it And if I were you I would never even take it out of your bag Unless they specifically asked for it because have you ever tried to read a research paper before This is what I do for a living. It’s boring It’s like the worst thing in the world Let’s keep going When you find what people care about? You have to use this knowledge as a way to get people to want to buy and I want to share this experiment with you Three researchers ran an experiment. They asked mock hotel owners to create an advertisement for their hotel and They let these mock hotel owners know that they have a five-star pool and a three-star restaurant, and they asked them What would you like to feature in this ad Heisman? Does anyone have any ideas? What would you put in this ad raise your hand if you want to try and take a guess? Would you put the hope would you put the pool the restaurant would you put both of them? Say again models in the pool Good that’s perfect, but you’d feature the pool and the food you feature both turns out in this research. They asked hundreds of people 72% of people chose the feature both the hotel and the pool in the ad But here’s where things got very interesting They asked mock customers how much they would pay for a night stay at this hotel When they saw an ad just for a five star pool they offered twenty six percent more money Wait a second they see an ad for a hotel One ad has a five star pool in a three star restaurant the other ad has just a five star pool They’re willing to pay more to just stay at a place that has a five star pool That doesn’t make any sense I mean a five star pool two three-star restaurants better I mean you don’t want to go to someplace as a pool with no food But it turns out people are willing to pay More for a hotel that only features a five star pool in a three-star restaurant Why is that why does that happen? Well when people see a five star pool in an advertisement, they make assumptions about the rest of the hotel One of the assumptions, they assume is if it’s a five star pool. It’s probably got good food, too But when you feature both of the five star pool and the three-star restaurant they start to average out How good the hotel is and say well? Maybe it’s not as good as I thought because the food’s not that good and they’re willing to pay less Now how does this apply to what you guys are selling? most salespeople when they walk into the room they try to Show off all the great features and benefits of their product, and how this product is going to change people’s lives They want to talk about everything they want to say I want to give them everything They can so there’s no reason why they could say no but it turns out if you offer too many things and Especially if you’ve offered too many things that the person you’re talking to doesn’t already care about They’re going to discount the importance of the thing you’re offering them that they do care about So once you find that thing that people care about what do you find what makes the indifferent care? Don’t overwhelm him with features and benefits and all these different things You want to find the one thing he cares about and then you want to focus on that completely nothing else Until he asks for more information you want to drill down in that hot button and Make him care about what you believe you can deliver to him The second side liner is known as the skeptic now This I believe is probably one of the more common side liners it being different If I was in your shoes I would imagine the general practitioners that don’t place any implants Those are the indifferent people right now, and they’re the small accounts They’re the people that you don’t want to necessarily Go after too much because it might piss off a surgeon or something like that, but you want to go after them But they might be more indifferent if you’re talking to the surgeons are the periodontists They might be a little bit more skeptical and what is it skeptic? How are they different from being different the skeptic doesn’t ask so what or why does this matter? The reason skeptics don’t buy is because they’re putting a magnifying glass on you Your business and your products they want to know more about what you’re offering them, and they’re there to act as if that what you’re offering them is not as good as what you’re presenting it as Have you dealt with skeptics surgeons skeptics yes, yes They’ll say. Who are you? Why should I trust you? And I believe what you’re telling me. How do I know this research is real? You’ll tell them It’s peer-reviewed And they’ll say well isn’t there a board of people that you can buy, and I’ll just go back and forth between all this stuff Now I talk about psychology research a lot in what I do, and I encounter skeptics a lot People always ask me. Well. Do you have a PhD in psychology? And the answer is no I don’t Don’t have a PhD in psychology. I actually majored in Shakespeare, which is completely unrelated to psychology And I tell them that right off the bat. I don’t have a PhD in psychology, but here’s a deal I leave the rigorous psychological research to people with masters and PhDs instead I Specialize in figuring out how this research? applies to business owners in the real world they can they conduct the stuff in a lab I conducted on real business and This usually a lays the skeptics fears or problems with you immediately Now do you see what I did here Even though it might seem like common sense What’s really happening is when you know something is is going to be skeptical You don’t want to try and argue with them about it Because that’s just gonna make them more skeptical if they say hey, I don’t believe you said oh You should believe me you’re gonna be back and forth and you’re gonna get nowhere However if you come up and just say you’re right. I don’t have a PhD or you’re right I don’t know how they picked the board on that Reese or that peer review board or whatnot? It makes them fall into This idea that they’re talking to someone who might be similar to them You’re not an adversary because you’re agreeing with them Now let’s talk about dr. Nice hair He uses low-cost implants to persuade him you need to figure out why he’s using those implants Is he skeptical that? high-cost implants Aren’t really better quality have you ever encountered that with your due with a low-cost implant user and they’ll be like well I’ve looked at both the low-cost ones in the high cost ones. I just don’t see the difference yes Yeah Well if that’s the case I wouldn’t argue with him about the quality of your implants Don’t try to tell him look you’re you’re wrong right don’t say he’s wrong Because he’s not gonna listen to anything else you say after that He’s gonna get defensive Instead you reframe. It first you might want to start with a story and This is a story again that one of the territory reps shared with me Well doctor a little bit of hair started using noble bio care. He went with a low-cost provider and 1.5 years later people had complaints about screws loosening I’m not sure what happened there, but I also heard the same thing happened with dr. Lots of hair How long have you used your provider? If you notice what’s happening you’re not saying that your implants are low quality because he’s not going to admit to that Instead you’re just saying hey. I have someone else who used this they had a problem I know someone else who used it. They had a problem How long have you been doing this for and it seems like you’re not trying to argue with him you’re just trying to help You’re trying to figure out. Why is he different than the people you already know? Now I know a lot of you have these stories of these people When you bring these stories up to a skeptic It’s always very important to try and name the doctor if you’re allowed to do so Because if you put a real name attached to it They’re more likely to think it’s a real story if you just go in there and say oh well I know all these other people that are having problems that sounds like you’re full of it if You say this doctor had this problem and this doctor had this problem and this doctor had this problem You’re not how I got to know why what are you doing different? And you can go in there act curious to try and figure out what’s happening, and he’s gonna at that point try and Understand what’s different as well or come to the conclusion that maybe these implants aren’t as good as what he thought they were Now if this isn’t working and You’re still not getting through to him Don’t belabor the point Don’t try to argue with him don’t try to show him more stories if it’s not working And it doesn’t work after one story or one comment or one thing Maybe give it two minutes if it’s not working you need to switch gears immediately and find something else to talk about Now I’m not saying you ever agree with him and say alright maybe your implants are the same quality, but you need to switch gears because Arguing kills the sale and don’t do it Now when I first started got when I first started selling You know as loves sales people are type a people we tend to think we know it all this is comes with the job and I would think that I can just argue people into submission and let me tell you it just never works It never works Because arguing kills sales don’t do it anymore Let’s keep going we talked about being different we talked about the skeptic the third side liner is the warrior Now the Warriors a little bit different than the skeptic, but what is that difference? Well while the skeptic questions you the warrior questions themselves? They often lack the confidence in themselves, and you need to provide that confidence And You might hear these warriors say things along the lines of well that works for them, but it won’t work for me or Maybe they say I’m not sure if I can pull this off. I don’t know if I have enough time left I’ve been doing it this way for so many years. I’m not sure I can learn something new at this point in my career Will I feel stupid after I buy this? I’ve asked myself that question before pretty much every purchase of that made Tony Robbins has a really good quote, and I really like this quote The only thing keeping you from getting what you want are the stories you’re telling Yourself about why you can’t have it and the Warriors are experts at telling themselves these stories Now when you start to hear these stories You can then we pull back a little bit and realize you’re not dealing with an indifferent person anymore they already care about it You’re not dealing with a skeptic person anymore. They already kind of trust the situation now you’re dealing with a confidence issue Now have you ever dealt with anyone? Who was a little bit shy? or someone who lacks confidence Have you ever walked up to them saying? Hey just be confident man does that ever work? No, or just put yourself out there This doesn’t work, so you can’t tell a warrior. Don’t worry That’s never gonna make them not worry instead you need to focus on the specific thing that is stressing them out and You need to show them why they shouldn’t be stressed about it Let’s take it to dr. Lots of hair There’s no way I could start placing implants. I’m too inexperienced, and I’ve never done it before you Could say something along the lines of well doctor nice hair thought that what’s interesting is that he didn’t start placing? Implants instead he created abutments and crowns. He dipped his toes in and now it’s 30% of his business Also, did you know that we have training classes that we offer we have one coming up. Why don’t you come as my guest? To just see what it’s like no commitment just come check it out. If you feel like you’re still concerned about doing this No problem Come as my guest See what it’s like What’s happening here when you’re dealing with the warrior your goal is to Encourage them to dip their toes into the water Forget the sale if someone is worrying about the product and worrying about their confidence to deliver what you’re saying they can deliver Stop asking them for money Instead you want to get them to say yes to something else and preferably something smaller like a class I Was doing with a friend that had a They’re a little bit. Shy Dead problems meeting new people Dead problems talking to strangers if they met someone new they would stutter a little bit And I was trying to help them break through this shyness or this confidence issue So one of the things I remember doing and it worked like a charm we were we where we had some store something like fast food plays like a juice place or something we walk up and we’re like at the we’re at the register, and I was like hey just He’s mentioning the girl was cute. It’s like hey just tell her how come it’s not free today and say it like as loud as obnoxious as you can and He’s like oh, no. I’m never gonna do that she’s you know they’re gonna get insulted, so I went up I said well, how come it’s not free today, and you just make a dumb face almost everyone laughs I’ve never said that to someone that I was supposed to pay and have them not laugh He saw that happen she laughed we went to another place He did it and that was the first step for him for talking to random people and now he talks to people all the time But the goal was he was worried about looking like an idiot So the goal is to say something look like an idiot and eventually you’re not gonna worry anymore Especially if there’s no stakes on the whole thing so it works for selling it works for coffins works for everything Let’s keep going to the next type of side liner Did the indifferent the skeptic the warrior the Next side liner, and I’m sure you’re all familiar with this side liner is the procrastinator the people who keep telling you oh I’m gonna get this one day, and then just keep keep you on the line and like deep down I don’t know about you I kind of hate procrastinators because I feel like I’m wasting my time and then six months go by Nine months go by you know at this point this guy is never gonna buy anything But he keeps telling you he’s gonna buy next month, and you keep doing Because you don’t want to lose the sale you want to be a good salesperson or whatnot Here’s the issue with the procrastinator There’s a reason why they’re not pulling the trigger and they’re gonna keep telling you they’re gonna do it. They’re never gonna do it You have to first find out what that reason is even though. They’re gonna say things like do I need this now or Can I? wait and see if something better comes along or will I feel stupid later for buying this the Procrastinator actually has a little bit of every sideline or within them They’re procrastinating for a reason because if they 100% trusted you 100% trusted themselves 100% believed That what they were buying was going to impact their business helped them sell more implants or whatnot help boost their bottle if they believe this There’s no logical reason why they should say no There’s an emotional reason though, and you need to find out what that reason is You need to figure out the fear that’s holding them back, and then you need to allay that fear Maybe you’re talking to a general practitioner, and I was talking to again about six reps And they said that general practitioners tend to be a lot more price sensitive than oral surgeons So if You know this to be true, and you present the cost What did you do after you present the class now. I don’t know if you guys offer Money-back guarantees or trial runs or payment plans or whatnot? But if you know cost is the issue and it’s not that they’re cheap because they don’t want to give you money But maybe they just don’t have the money to give you right now if you know that’s the issue you need to stop what you’re doing and figure out how to show them that this makes sense and provide them with options and reasons why The cost is a non-issue. I sell downloadable training products and downloadable software products This is what I do for my business Right after I announce the price of my thing and they’re not cheap some of these courses are two thousand three thousand dollars But right after I announced that I always then quickly show them right off the bat. I’ve got a rock-solid 30-day guarantee you can try the product for 30 days risk-free if you feel like you don’t get 10x the value from the training Email the support team before the 31st day, and you’ll get a full refund It’s really that simple, I’m just encouraging them not to buy it But instead to try it and I use try on purpose There’s another research study where some conversion tests were done online because even though we can’t Hear what people saying they don’t give us reasons why they’re not buying we can do cool things like showing 500 people one page and showing a different 500 people a different page and we can start changing micro changing words To see what’s actually making people pull the trigger and they found that when you’re asking people to give you money that Hurts people want to spend money, so we don’t ask them to buy anything instead we say try on purpose Why don’t you try this out I? have a friend and I’m I Think he’s crazy for doing this but he does it he sells an expensive piece of software to small businesses and He says you could try it today, and if you don’t fall in love with it in 90 days We’ll give you twice your money back That’s Listen the risk-averse person to me thinks he’s nuts Because I just think that people are gonna buy it and then just get 100% return on their money in three months he Sold thousands and thousands of copies of this software to Date he’s had only five people take him up on this double your money back But what’s interesting is she? Tried it out it Helped move that procrastinator who’s worried about price and risk into buying and he’s made significantly more sales because of it Now I’m not saying you guys need to do something like this or something this crazy But it might be something worth testing it might be something worth Saying if you don’t have something like this you can say I want to try this out for the next 30 customers and then only offer it to 30 people and that’s it so you can limit your risk and then see what happens after 90 days if You notice that nobody takes you up on it. Maybe this is something worth pursuing and scaling up to 60 people These are the things you have to think about things that don’t make sense or think we’re seeing crazy Actually rarely bite you in the in the ass I Have one friend that offers a one year guarantee This to me is also ridiculous because we found something who’s very interesting about one-year guarantees and this is why I’ll never offer them Every year about a week and a half before Christmas everyone refunds there’s a spike in refunds literally a week and a half before Christmas all the time and That’s because people are trying to buy Christmas gifts, and they’re like oh, they’re viewing you as a bank and some people take advantage, but again you can run these tests you can see if it’s Generating more sales than you’re losing and you can keep going Another way to get a procrastinator to buy if you don’t want to go the cost route is To give them a small win give them a taste of what they’re gonna achieve when they stop procrastinating I had a tooth that was a little wonky and at one appointment my Dentist said we can fix that and make it look perfect And I went through the whole Stages of skepticism do I really need this can he really? Deliver this what if it doesn’t what if I don’t like the way it were looks What if I start stuttering all this weird stuff and he was like well I could just show you how to how this tooth is going to look and he like applied this like magic putty to my tooth and Showed me what the tooth is gonna look like and took a picture and I was like oh, I guess great We scheduled that we scheduled that uh That tooth procedure cuz he showed me he gave me a small He showed me what the tooth was gonna look like after I did it and sold me right on the spot cuz small wins convert Now how does the information? That I just shared with you Help me create this booklet When most people sell products they focus on their product they focus on the research they focus on the history of their company Actually, you probably all have booklets, and if you open these booklets up. It’s probably talking about how great your products are right? I’ll just go through the features. Here’s this feature here’s this feature goes through the product product product product product when I sell products I don’t even introduce the product I Introduce the product later in those booklets I Want to address all of the side liners first before I ask people to buy So when I’m writing this sales copy. I’m not saying hey. Here’s my new thing buy it I’m not even saying. There is a new thing. I’m trying to connect first, and I want to give you an example This is from one of my software products called zippy courses Just to give you just a quick example it starts off with hey I’m Derek Halpern the founder of social triggers and one of the biggest problems I had in my business was this How can I create my course and then deliver it to my students without headaches that come with setting up software and technology? Now in my business one of the main reasons why people wouldn’t buy was because they’re worried about technology And I addressed that in the firt in the first sentence. I then keep going in short. I had a course I just wanted a piece of software that would allow me to sell and protect it without messing with Software without messing with PHP without headaches, I just wanted to create My course sell it and then start working with my students sound familiar at this point I’m getting their attention by speaking to Their innate side liners that are preventing them from wanting to buy These people are entrepreneurs or teachers and many of them have online training courses they want to sell and I’ve done my research in advance about these side liners about these people and I figured out what their hopes their dreams their fears are and I’m addressing those in my copy first Before I even mention the fact that I’m selling anything And it just keeps going it turns out Me you and everyone else has these same fears and problems and the existing software in the market was either a too Expensive or be too hard to use and that’s why I parted with a world-class developer and it goes on now I want to show you one thing I did here because I think this is something that you can start doing I Immediately disqualified all my competitors by saying they’re either more expensive or too hard to use Its kind of true but maybe it’s a little bit more on the gray line I Believe my software is easier to use which is why I created it, but I’m sitting there. I’m addressing these concerns I’m making them realize that they might not have any other options available to them and this is the only option that they have and This page goes on for 15 pages 15 pages I’m getting I’m asking people to read before I finally say hey by the way introducing zippy courses you can buy this software I Start by talking to people’s emotions first, then I ask them to buy now many of you do this by default when you’re doing that one-on-one and You’re trying to find their hot buttons and you’re trying to press those hot buns so you can make sure they’re gonna get the sale but It just goes to show you that you can do it on paper, too If you do the research first and one of the things I was hoping that You would all take away from this presentation today is to know that no matter what sales Call you’re going on the person you’re talking to is going to be just like everybody else you’ve already talked to if You go in there knowing that there are indifferent people. You know they’re warriors. You know they’re skeptics You know they’re procrastinators when you spot that into conversation you need to address or change the way you’re talking to that person as So you start speaking their language? So you start appealing to the things that they want most? and When you do do this when you know why people don’t buy it actually gives you the opportunity to Bring up a question that they might ask before they ask it and This is really important to do because if they ask the question They’re on the you know They’re being the aggressor and there you have to prove yourself to them But if you raise the question before they even ask it they start to view you as someone that they can trust Because they see that you’re being honest with them They see that you truly understand them as a customer they don’t view you as a salesperson at that point they start viewing you as a friends and That’s what most of us try to do when we’re selling We don’t want to go in there and have people feel like we’re just trying to get money from them You want them to trust us if you start raising these questions before they have them And you spot which sidelines you’re talking to before they raise the questions, it’s gonna be great That’s how you can walk out of the office with the sale now I told you I spoke with Scott Lynch Rep for Noble when I asked him how he deals with people who use low quality implants I told you what he said he uses that metaphor where he talks about the girl going to college. I like this example There’s a great example of turning an indifferent into someone who cares I? spoke with another rep John Costantini I’m sorry if I mispronounced that and he was a territory rep as well and he said he gets his foot in the door by offering a three-part lunch-and-learn This is really interesting to me because he went through this three-part lunch-and-learn with me what he did he leads his with his first Presentation about communication and branding has nothing to do with Noble bio care products whatsoever it’s just about communication and branding he leads with value first It gives him a chance to build that trust or credibility These were valid first Denny follows over the presentation about implants and advanced options This is very similar to what I do actually online. I give people a free ebook I give them valuable content another video more content And then I asked him to buy something After I had the chance to build trust a lot of people who were in the sales world ask for the sale too soon And if you ask for the sale too soon You’re never gonna get that sale a lot of other sales trains will tell you to ask Questions and make sure you’re trying to prescribe their problems, or we’re not in double prescribed well diagnose their problems and then prescribe the solution to the problem, but Sometimes you don’t even have that if you build that trust and likability first you’re in a relationship business if you can build the relationship Before you actually need them to buy something from you. It’s gonna make your life a whole lot easier Now you’re gonna get a booklet that rehashes some of the big concepts that I covered in this presentation And we’re gonna have time for questions, but first I wanna say Thank you to Scott Lynch, John Constantini Tim trap Justin Behrens April Lee Katrina Haines Mike Van Daan coke Joe Day Tom Olsen for all making time for me before this meeting to speak with me about Orwell to answer some of the dumbest questions about a dental implant sales probably that they’ve ever heard But I really appreciate the time they made so thank you. Thank you, and thank you everyone else I appreciate it now if you want to learn more about what I do I have a website called social triggers calm and my youtube channel, which is how April and? Malkin’s found me to begin with and you’ll see me yelling on the camera And I guess you might have no time for questions or time for questions. What do you think? We good perfect, thank you

92 thoughts on “How to Sell Anything to Anybody (Keynote Presentation)

  1. While watching this video, I decided to do something a little different than just listening – I started to analyze how you structured your presentation. It starts with an introduction from a 3rd party (more credible than self-promotion), a story, and then presenting/amplifying the related problem. I'm only at the 12 minute mark right now, but dissecting this video is teaching me a lot on how I could structure something as to make it as persuasive and captivating as your videos.

  2. 0:00 – How to Sell Anything to Anybody (Keynote Presentation) — Derek Halpern

  3. You're giving away the keys to the kingdom here, Derek! Thanks as always for providing such valuable content… I'm only about 10 minutes in and I've already picked up instruction that is going to change the way I approach potential customers!

  4. This process shows just how universal the sales process is – good techniques can be used in any type of sales process.

  5. This concept of the sideliners makes me think about an article that Taylor Pearson wrote about how to "attract luck" when you are selling your product or promoting your content. He compares the Pareto Principle with the Long Tail Principle and shows that if you know how to focus your effort on the long tail that is simultaneously the people that would be the 80% of people that is uncertain that they will buy (the other 20% being buyers and non-buyers) and that you can have a raise in revenue if you know how to market to these 80% as they are the most probable to become costumers. Great video!

    p.s.: I've grossly summed up the article that can be easily googled with "Taylor Pearson How To Attract Luck"

  6. This is pure gold!

    I've bought from you twice, so I know it works.  I'm guessing I started off as a buyer.  : )

    What I love is that even though I have two of your programs, I'm still getting value from this video and the others since you relaunched your YouTube Channel!

  7. Addressing your audience's fears and hesitations is a GREAT way to put them at ease and then they are paying attention to your offer! Thanks for this valuable tip Derek.

  8. Sales has been the most challenging area of my design practice and this talk is just mind-blowing. Back in the past, I've always relied on my enthusiasm for the product/service and its potential to help others when selling, and if they still didn't want it, then I stopped at that. My value is to never push because I myself don't like being pushed. But when we look at sales in terms of providing other people with the solutions they need when they're ready, then it's technically not "pushing". So through this talk I've learned that sales is like a coaching conversation. You know how to help the prospect, but they don't see you or your product in that light, and so you find ways to reframe your message for them to understand and be open to it. This is gold, thanks for sharing this whole talk, Derek!

  9. A big takeaway for me is that leading a sales pitch with your product or service’s deliverables is inferior to leading with the value your product can bring. And the value proposition will be different with each kind of sideliners. This same concept applies to the 3 different kinds of customers presentation (oblivious, afflicted, informed).

    We’ve got to talk to potential customers in a way that matters to THEM – not in a way that matters to us. Sure, we think our products are great. But not everyone will. So honing in on the specific value one might gain from buying your product is a must!

  10. Awww yeah…I saw this was an hour long and I got comfy in the couch and grabbed my headphones.

    Sh*t Derek…this is so valuable.

    Like others, I love how you were introduced by someone else and that you hooked me almost instantly with a STORY.

    Actually wait…I also love how you walked around in silence and suddenly say, “what’s up?”.

    My take always/notes and insights!

    #1 Take the time to research and understand your customer.

    #2 The 3 types of people when selling (you mentioned this during the last meaty video you shared).

    #3 Focusing on people that already want something.

    #4 Four universal reasons people don’t buy.

    INDIFFERENT (do I really need this, do I really have a problem), don’t talk about what you sell (research and innovation). Find what people care about, use it to get them to buy.

    Don’t overwhelm them with features and benefits.

    This is so true. I was on a call with a nutritionalist and I just want a diet plan but she started going on about supplements and meal replacement shakes. Nope. Just lost me.

    SKEPTICS: Want to learn more, (who are you, are you qualified, why you?). Don’t argue with them. (Back to the nutritionalist…I turned down the extras and just wanted the meal plan and she pushed back trying to convince me).

    Don’t say they are wrong, reframe it with a story. Not arguing, just trying to help. Add a name…(she sent me photos of before and afters of her clients…which was super compelling).

    Arguing kills the sale, don’t do it.

    WORRIER: skeptic questions you, worries question themselves. (I don’t know if I can do this, this won’t work for me, will I feel stupid after I buy this).

    Don’t tell them not to worry, focus on the specific thing they are stressed about and show them why they don’t need to be stressed about it.

    Goal is to encourage them to dip their toes in the water. Get them to say yes to something.

    PROCRASTINATOR: There is a reason why they aren’t pulling the trigger and you must find out what that is.

    Find out the emotional reason for the no (the fear).

    Encourage them to try not buy. Try on purpose.

    Fall in love in 90 days or double your money back.

    Give them a taste of what they’ll achieve.

    Small wins convert

    Introduce the product later, after you address all the sideliners before you introduce it. Getting their attention by speaking to their hopes, fears and dreams.

    Disqualify your competitors.

    Talk to people’s emotions first and then ask them to buy.

    Address or change they way you speak so you appeal to what they want most. This way you can answer the question before they have to ask. They see you as a friend, not a sales person.

    3 part lunch and learn: lead with value first, follow up with the sale.


  11. Wow. Not what I was expecting as a Planet Derek post but gold here. This is a nice masterclass in sales of any kind. A funnel is a funnel. Sales are sales.
    I needed to stop, rewind and take notes on the process.

    The three people you will meet
    • Buyers – yea!
    • Non-buyers – Let ‘em go
    • Sideliner – Sell the Eskimos warmth, not ice
    Know where they are on the “yes” line
    Overcoming objections
    • Know the objections before the prospect raises them
    o Price
    o Competitor
    o Service
    o Don’t fix what isn’t broken
    • Look behind the words for the real reason
    Four types of objections
    • Indifferent
    o Afraid of change
    o Find what they care about and sell them what they want
    o Look to inante desires – deep needs, not superficial
    o What they care about, not what you do
    o Don’t lead with what you sell
    o Don’t overwhelm with features – focus on what they care about
    • Skeptic
    o Doesn’t ask so what – they want to know about you, your company and your product
    o Who are you, why should I trust you
    o Don’t argue – damaging admission to become agreeable
    o Reframe the discussion using specific stories/examples
    o You can never argue into submission (I know this from real life!)
    • Worrier
    o May work for them but…
    o I don’t know if I can learn this…
    o Will I feel stupid if I buy this
    o The only thing keeping you from getting what you want are the stories you’re telling yourself about why you can’t have it – Tony Robbins
    o Stop trying to sell. Try getting them to say yes to something.
    • Procrastinator
    o A combination of all the above
    o Find the emotional reason they are procrastinating. Allay their fear
    o “Try this out” vs buy
    o Give them a little taste, a small win
    Don’t be a salesperson, be a friend
    Lead with value first
    Build trust long before you ask for the sell

  12. These are all great tips and tools to guide me to better sales that feel natural because it is. If you want to be contributing your gifts to the world and making money while doing it this video will open new levels of success for sure. Now what will I start implementing today…I'll keep you posted. Also, I was curious, at what point in your business did you start doing youtube videos? And how are they different from your daily vlogging now?


    I recognize the incredible value you have just shared with us and so appreciate it!

    As I listened I kept thinking about my clients, their clients, myself as a seller, myself as a buyer, and about the different types of people in the world. So many layers of application!

    I will listen to this over and over! ❤️

  14. It was not lost on me how you spoke the language of your audience. I not only learned from what you were teaching but also from watching you actually apply it!

  15. Derek your videos are truly giving us the tools we need to be self aware and to push through even when it's tough I can't wait to see what comes next.

  16. Fantastic presentation. Just what I needed this weekend, and a great followup to your sales presentation a couple of weeks ago. Both are definitely must watches in my book! Thanks for the fantastic content as usual. 🙂

  17. I had to wait till just now bcz i wanted to listen to this whole thing because I've come to expect over and above content from you Derek! Such a class act even in t-shirts every day. (Looking snazzy here tho.)

    Who reads that much? Only the buyers. Yes!

  18. Great presentation and great content Derek! Loving the daily series and how you keep it fresh with keynotes and other bonuses 🙂

  19. Fantastic. This is worth making the time to watch. Full of loads of great info and it's given me a ton of ideas of how I can apply this to my own stuff. Thanks again Derek, these videos are great.

  20. It’s amazing how much of this is straight out of Ramit Sethi’s approach… great talk, I am just curious about where this model comes from that might predate both of these guys…

  21. Wow Derek, thanks so much for sharing this. I've only watched it once but I'm gonna have to go through a second time and make better notes.

  22. I learned allot from this presentation.

    I can distill and concentrate this information for those of you that want a less contrived and more richening experience.

    For $79.99 you are entitled to this information.

    Thank you Derek for applying this message it's really helping my entrepreneurship grow.

    Contact me through my channel if you're interested in obtaining this value.

  23. He is using trigger words to manipulate your mind "YES, YES"…."SAY YES"….."NO SAY NO" and people get programed and persuaded into trusting him and liking him and then buying from him…therefore giving him money.

  24. Want to see "behind the scenes" of an entrepreneur who makes more than $1M dollars per year? Follow me on Instagram. It might surprise you.

  25. So much talked, I don't have so much time to listen. Good attention ,but too much. Should 3 minutes after people gave big thumb. ?

  26. The DJ probably won't be called back. He should have described what happened to him in more general terms, rather than calling someone out.

  27. Valuable information.
    My only point is, if you want to sell something, preparation is key. As i watched the video noticed you are reading so much off the monitors (or whatever is there, you are checking that so often). For me it felt like you did not prepare that made me question credibility.
    When you were walking left-right or making eye contact with the audience, your credibility went up. As soon as you started monitoring the display or whatever that was, i felt like connection dropped.

  28. Are you reading your presentation from a monitor? Each Coach can be more credible speaking from a Heart or just from a white board writing things down. Steve Jobs don't believe in use of power point slides and be dependent on its content rather than the mastery of the topic. How many years of selling experience would the speaker have?

  29. SUMMARY:

    Types of customers and approach to sell to them


    a) Indifferent – Find out their personal concerns in life and focus on them to become interested. Address that concern with the product features by showing them how they resolve that concern.

    b) Skeptic – Don’t argue. Arguing kills sales. Begin by agreeing to their criticism. Then be curious and ask for facts which points towards the weakness in their argument.

    c) Worrier – They are not confident about themselves. They worry about whether they can take the risk. Show the specific solution to the issue they are stressed about. And then encourage them to “dip their toes” in the water by offering them free assistance with getting familiar to the product.

    d) Procastrinator – They are already convinced. But doesn’t buy because of an emotional reason may be which needs to be found out. More like the worrier. He is worried about the risk for the price he pays. For them say “Try before you buy”. Full refund if you don’t like. Give them a small win, a taste what they are going to achieve if they buy this.

    General advice for selling:

    Don’t sell the product. Don’t even talk about the product first. Just connect with the customer emotionally. Appeal to the things they want most. Bring up a question they might ask but ask it yourself. They will trust you then because they will feel that you are on their side trying to resolve the issue vexing them.

  30. Oh no!!! Only 200 true friends on FB? You should, 'like' , work on you virtual friends numbers on FB, young lady. 'Like'.
    PS: the world is full of people begging to be bullied into doing stuff they don't really want to. Just making it easy for arrogant I-R-baboons who speak down onto you with condescending smiles while leaning their head on a side. Pink shirt and tie and the package is complete.

  31. You forgot to mention another type of customers: The Fantasisers
    People who waste your time fantasising about a product or service but never have the budget to buy it.

  32. The 'Yes' line huh? People have really forgotten this system already? Could have been more creative with the rebranding though. Whatever works though.

  33. I think he’s quite likeable…? He’s obviously good at what he does. And he’s sharing his knowledge for free. What’s not to like?

  34. Derek, Your video touched my heart. I have gone through all those situations with regard to my would-be clients that you spoke about. You gave valuable content through your talk. You are fantastic. I just bumped into this video, which came in front of me. I face a similar client ( doctors) based situations with similar excuses. By the way, I make educational cum surgery based video presentation for my client doctors ( Orthopedic surgeons, Plastic Surgeons, ENT Specialist, Gynecologist, etc). This video presentation is meant for patient education, for doctors to doctors or for their own online promotion. This is Anthony from Santacruz, Mumbai, India.

  35. These tips are very helpful even for those who have zero background in sales or marketing. Really, the key to selling anything is having the right material on hand and placing it strategically where your audience can see it.

  36. Derek…I've been out of sales for years do to medical issues and now am getting back for I am feeling good enough to go back to sales again. I must tell you…that this was just what I needed! I didn't think to take notes but your presentation was so RIGHT ON, AND INVITING I had to take notes and I'M GLAD I HAVE DONE SO! GREAT PRESENTATION…DIFFERENT CUT FROM WHAT I WAS TAUGHT. I WOULD SAY MORE EFFECTIVE THOUGH THE WAY WAS SIMILAR…THANK YOU….GREAT JOB!

  37. You use to much "I" you should use more "you". People only care about them selves. By saying "you" you get more attention 😉

  38. As a saleswoman, I have learned made so many mistakes and have gotten better! Now I always say, you need options, decisions, and true statements about the quality, high end quality, mid range low end! Even if they can afford low end always give them decisions, talk to them about applying for credit cards through the company, payments and other options, I noticed customers feel more comfort towards having a leverage to making a choice for the items

  39. I like how he gives solutions to sell each of his sideliners. That's something a lot of people don't do in keynotes. Props.

  40. I asked "How come its not FREE today in Germany and was politely escorted from the restaurant…" I never talked to strangers again 🙁

  41. Sounds like Dale Carnegie book "how to win friends and Influence people." If you watched this video, you should prob pick up the book, it might help better understand. the method and reason why.

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