How to learn any language in six months | Chris Lonsdale | TEDxLingnanUniversity

How to learn any language in six months | Chris Lonsdale | TEDxLingnanUniversity


Translator: TED Translators admin
Reviewer: Allam Zedan The people in the back,
can you hear me clearly? OK, good. Have you ever held a question in mind for so long that it becomes
part of how you think? Maybe even part of who you are
as a person? Well I’ve had a question in my mind
for many, many years and that is:
How can you speed up learning? Now, this is an interesting question because if you speed up learning, you can spend less time at school. And if you learn really fast, you probably
wouldn’t have to go to school at all. Now, when I was young,
school was sort of OK but… I found quite often that school
got in the way of learning so I had this question in mind:
How do you learn faster? And this began when I was
very, very young, when I was 11 years old, I wrote a letter to researchers in the
Soviet Union, asking about hypnopaedia, this is sleep-learning, where you get a tape recorder,
you put it beside your bed and it turns on
in the middle of the night when you’re sleeping, and you’re supposed to be
learning from this. A good idea,
unfortunately it doesn’t work. But, hypnopaedia did open the doors
to research in other areas and we’ve had
incredible discoveries about learning that began
with that first question. I went on from there to become
passionate about psychology and I have been involved in psychology
in many different ways for the rest of my life
up until this point. In 1981, I took myself to China and I decided that I was going to be
native level in Chinese inside two years. Now, you need to understand that
in 1981, everybody thought Chinese was really, really difficult and that a Westerner
could study for 10 years or more and never really get very good at it. And I also went in with a different idea which was: taking all of the conclusions from psychological research
up to that point and applying them
to the learning process. What was really cool was that in six
months I was fluent in Mandarin Chinese and it took a little bit longer
to get up to native. But I looked around and I saw all of
these people from different countries struggling terribly with Chinese, I saw Chinese people struggling terribly
to learn English and other languages, and so my question got refined down to: How can you help a normal adult learn a new language
quickly, easily and effectively? Now this is a really, really important
question in today’s world. We have massive challenges
with environment, we have massive challenges
with social dislocation, with wars, all sorts of things going on and if we can’t communicate, we’re really going to have difficulty
solving these problems. So we need to be able to speak
each other’s languages, this is really, really important. The question then is: How do you do that? Well, it’s actually really easy. You look around for people
who can already do it, you look for situations
where it’s already working and then you identify the principles
and apply them. It’s called modelling and I’ve been
looking at language learning and modelling language learning
for about 15 to 20 years now. And my conclusion,
my observation from this is that any adult can learn a second
language to fluency inside six months. Now when I say this, most people
think I’m crazy, this is not possible. So let me remind everybody of
the history of human progress, it’s all about expanding our limits. In 1950, everybody believed that running
one mile in four minutes was impossible, and then Roger Bannister did it in 1956 and from there
it’s got shorter and shorter. 100 years ago everybody believed that
heavy stuff doesn’t fly. Except it does and we all know this. How does heavy stuff fly? We reorganise the material
using principles that we have learned from observing nature, birds in this case. And today we’ve gone even further… We’ve gone even further,
so you can fly a car. You can buy one of these
for a couple 100.000 US dollars. We now have cars in the world that fly. And there’s a different way to fly
which we’ve learned from squirrels. So all you need to do is copy
what a flying squirrel does, build a suit called a wing suit and
off you go, you can fly like a squirrel. Now most people, a lot of people,
I wouldn’t say everybody but a lot of people think they can’t draw. However there are some key principles,
five principles, that you can apply to learning to draw and you can
actually learn to draw in five days. So, if you draw like this, you learn
these principles for five days and apply them and after five days
you can draw something like this. Now I know this is true because
that was my first drawing and after five days of applying these
principles that was what I was able to do. And I looked at this and I went: “Wow, so that’s how I look like
when I’m concentrating so intensely that my brain is exploding.” So, anybody can learn to draw in five days and in the same way, with the same logic, anybody can learn a second language
in six months. How? There are five principles
and seven actions. There may be a few more
but these are absolutely core. And before I get into those
I just want to talk about two myths, I want to dispel two myths. The first is that you need talent. Let me tell you about Zoe. Zoe came from Australia, went to Holland,
was trying to learn Dutch, struggling extremely, extremely…
a great deal and finally people were saying:
“You’re completely useless,” “you’re not talented,” “give up,”
“you’re a waste of time” and she was very, very depressed. And then she came across
these five principles, she moved to Brazil and she applied them and in six months
she was fluent in Portuguese, so talent doesn’t matter. People also think that immersion in a new
country is the way to learn a language. But look around Hong Kong,
look at all the westerners who’ve been here for 10 years,
who don’t speak a word of Chinese. Look at all the Chinese living in
America, Britain, Australia, Canada have been there 10, 20 years
and they don’t speak any English. Immersion per se does not work. Why? Because a drowning man
cannot learn to swim. When you don’t speak a language,
you’re like a baby. And if you drop yourself into a context which is all adults talking about stuff
over your head, you won’t learn. So, what are the five principles
that you need to pay attention to? First: the four words, attention, meaning, relevance and memory, and these interconnect in very,
very important ways. Especially when you’re talking
about learning. Come with me on a journey
through a forest. You go on a walk through a forest and you see something like this…
Little marks on a tree, maybe you pay attention, maybe you don’t. You go another 50 metres
and you see this… You should be paying attention. Another 50 metres, if you haven’t been
paying attention, you see this… And at this point,
you’re paying attention. And you’ve just learned that this…
is important, it’s relevant
because it means this, and anything that is related,
any information related to your survival is stuff that you’re going to pay
attention to and therefore you’re going
to remember it. If it’s related to your personal goals, then you’re going to pay attention to it. If it’s relevant,
you’re going to remember it. So, the first rule,
first principle for learning a language is focus on language content
that is relevant to you. Which brings us to tools. We master tools by using tools
and we learn tools the fastest when they are relevant to us. So let me share a story. A keyboard is a tool. Typing Chinese a certain way,
there are methods for this. That’s a tool. I had a colleague many years ago who went to night school;
Tuesday night, Thursday night, two hours each time, practicing at home, she spent nine months,
and she did not learn to type Chinese. And one night we had a crisis. We had 48 hours to deliver
a training manual in Chinese. And she got the job,
and I can guarantee you in 48 hours, she learned to type Chinese because it was relevant,
it was meaningful, it was important, she was using a tool to create value. So the second principle for learning
a language is to use your language as a tool to communicate
right from day one. As a kid does. When I first arrived in China,
I didn’t speak a word of Chinese, and on my second week,
I got to take a train ride overnight. I spent eight hours sitting
in the dining car talking to one of the guards on the train, he took an interest in me for some reason, and we just chatted all night in Chinese and he was drawing pictures and
making movements with his hands and facial expressions
and piece by piece by piece I understood more and more. But what was really cool,
was two weeks later, when people were talking Chinese
around me, I was understanding some of this and I hadn’t even made any effort
to learn that. What had happened,
I’d absorbed it that night on the train, which brings us to the third principle. When you first understand the message, then you will acquire
the language unconsciously. And this is really,
really well documented now, it’s something called
comprehensible input. There’s 20 or 30 years
of research on this, Stephen Krashen, a leader in the field, has published all sorts of
these different studies and this is just from one of them. The purple bars show the scores
on different tests for language. The purple people were people who had
learned by grammar and formal study, the green ones are the ones
who learned by comprehensible input. So, comprehension works.
Comprehension is key and language learning is not about
accumulating lots of knowledge. In many, many ways
it’s about physiological training. A woman I know from Taiwan
did great in English at school, she got A grades all the way through, went through college, A grades,
went to the US and found she couldn’t understand
what people were saying. And people started asking her:
“Are you deaf?” And she was. English deaf. Because we have filters
in our brain that filter in the sounds that we are familiar with and they filter out the sounds of
languages that we’re not. And if you can’t hear it,
you won’t understand it, if you can’t understand it,
you’re not going to learn it. So you actually have to be
able to hear these sounds. And there are ways to do that
but it’s physiological training. Speaking takes muscle. You’ve got 43 muscles in your face, you have to coordinate those in a way that you make sounds that
other people will understand. If you’ve ever done a new sport
for a couple of days, and you know how your body feels? Hurts? If your face is hurting,
you’re doing it right. And the final principle is state.
Psycho-physiological state. If you’re sad, angry, worried, upset,
you’re not going to learn. Period. If you’re happy, relaxed,
in an Alpha brain state, curious, you’re going to learn really quickly, and very specifically you need
to be tolerant of ambiguity. If you’re one of those people
who needs to understand 100 percent every word you’re hearing,
you will go nuts, because you’ll be incredibly upset
all the time, because you’re not perfect. If you’re comfortable with getting some,
not getting some, just paying attention
to what you do understand, you’re going to be fine, relaxed,
and you’ll be learning quickly. So based on those five principles,
what are the seven actions that you take? Number one: Listen a lot. I call it brain soaking. You put yourself in a context where you’re hearing tons and tons
and tons of a language and it doesn’t matter
if you understand it or not. You’re listening to the rhythms,
to patterns that repeat, you’re listening to things that stand out. (Chinese) Pào nǎozi. (English) So, just soak your brain in this. The second action is that
you get the meaning first, even before you get the words. You go: “Well how do I do that?
I don’t know the words!” Well, you understand what these
different postures mean. Human communication is body language
in many, many ways, so much body language. From body language you can
understand a lot of communication, therefore, you’re understanding, you’re
acquiring through comprehensible input. And you can also use patterns
that you already know. If you’re a Chinese speaker of Mandarin
and Cantonese and you go to Vietnam, you will understand 60 percent of what
they say to you in daily conversation, because Vietnamese is about 30 percent
Mandarin, 30 percent Cantonese. The third action: Start mixing. You probably have never thought of this but if you’ve got 10 verbs,
10 nouns and 10 adjectives, you can say 1000 different things. Language is a creative process. What do babies do? OK,
“me”, “bath”, “now”. OK, that’s how they communicate. So start mixing, get creative,
have fun with it, it doesn’t have to be perfect,
just has to work. And when you’re doing this,
you focus on the core. What does that mean? Well, any language is
high frequency content. In English 1000 words covers 85 percent of anything you’re ever going
to say in daily communication. 3000 words gives you 98 percent of anything you’re going to say
in daily conversation. You got 3000 words,
you’re speaking the language. The rest is icing on the cake. And when you’re just beginning
with a new language, start with your tool box. Week number one, in your new language you say things like: “How do you say that?”
“I don’t understand,” “repeat that please,”
“what does that mean?” all in your target language. You’re using it as a tool,
making it useful to you, it’s relevant to learn other things
about the language. By week two,
you should be saying things like: “me,” “this,” “you,” “that,”
“give,” you know, “hot,” simple pronouns,
simple nouns, simple verbs, simple adjectives,
communicating like a baby. And by the third or fourth week,
you’re getting into “glue words.” “Although,” “but,” “therefore,”
these are logical transformers that tie bits of a language together,
allowing you to make more complex meaning. At that point you’re talking. And when you’re doing that,
you should get yourself a language parent. If you look at how
children and parents interact, you’ll understand what this means. When a child is speaking, it’ll be using
simple words, simple combinations, sometimes quite strange,
sometimes very strange pronunciation, other people from outside the family
don’t understand it. But the parents do. And so the kid has a safe environment,
gets confidence. The parents talk to the children
with body language and with simple language they
know the child understands. So you have a comprehensible input
environment that’s safe, we know it works; otherwise none of you
would speak your mother tongue. So you get yourself a language parent, who’s somebody interested in you
as a person who will communicate with you
essentially as an equal, but pay attention to help you
understand the message. There are four rules of a language parent. Spouses are not very good at this, OK? But the four rules are, first of all, they will work hard
to understand what you mean even when you’re way off beat. Secondly, they will never
correct your mistakes. Thirdly, they will feed back
their understanding of what you are saying so that you can respond appropriately
and get that feedback and then they will use
words that you know. The sixth thing you have to do,
is copy the face. You got to get the muscles working right, so you can sound in a way that
people will understand you. There’s a couple of things you do. One is that you hear how it feels,
and feel how it sounds which means you have a feedback loop
operating in your face, but ideally if you can look at
a native speaker and just observe
how they use their face, let your unconscious mind
absorb the rules, then you’re going to be
able to pick it up. And if you can’t get a native speaker
to look at, you can use stuff like this… (Female voice) Sing, song,
king, stung, hung. (Chris Lonsdale) And the final idea here,
the final action you need to take is something that I call “direct connect”. What does this mean? Well most people
learning a second language sort of take the mother tongue words
and the target words and go over them again and again in their mind to try
and remember them. Really inefficient. What you need to do is realise that everything you know is an image
inside your mind, it’s feelings, if you talk about fire,
you can smell the smoke, you can hear the crackling,
you can see the flames, so what you do, is you go into
that imagery and all of that memory and you come out with another pathway.
So I call it “same box, different path”. You come out of that pathway
and you build it over time, you become more and more skilled
at just connecting the new sounds to those images that you already have,
into that internal representation. And over time you even become naturally
good at that process, that becomes unconscious. So, there are five principles that you
need to work with, seven actions, if you do any of them,
you’re going to improve. And remember these are things
under your control as the learner. Do them all and you’re going to be
fluent in a second language in six months. Thank you. (Applause)

93 thoughts on “How to learn any language in six months | Chris Lonsdale | TEDxLingnanUniversity

  1. That moment when you know all these tips because you're majoring in linguistics but still too lazy to learn another language and you've got a long wish list of languages.

    Anyone?

    No just me!!
    OK.

  2. I agree with everything He’s saying I’m currently learning Korean and the things he’s saying to do I’ve done without even thinking and they all work…☺️

  3. So true. Few yrs ago my coworker's wife was teaching me mandrin in 2 months i was understnding and speaking and identifying characrers unfortunately ive forgotten most of it because i moved but i am going to start learning Vietnamese .

  4. NaCl in the irrigation water on the growth, physiology, and nutrient uptake of chrysanthemums ( Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat.), plants were watered with solutions with different NaCl concentrations (0, 1, 3, 6, or 9 g·L −1 ). Plants receiving 9 g·L −1 NaCl had a 76% reduction in shoot dry weight, a 90% reduction in

  5. In order to learn a second language you need direct images from Day 1. Duolingos method of constantly translating may work at the beginning, although frustrating later on. If you are learning German the class should be in German which will be more difficult at the beginning however help you later on as you begin to understand before even able to speak the language.

  6. Principle #1. Focus on language content that is relevant for you.
    Principle #2. Use your new language as a tool to communicate from day 1.
    Principle #3. When you first UNDERSTAND THE MESSAGE you will unconsciously ACQUIRE the language
    Principle #4 Physiological Training.
    Principle #5 Psycho-Physiological STATE matters.

    Action #1 Listen a lot
    Action #2 Focus on getting the meaning first (before de words)
    Action #3. Start mixing (get creative, have fun with it, IT DOESN'T HAVE TO BE PERFECT, just has to work)
    Action #4. Focus on the Core.
    Action #5. Get a language Parent.
    Action #6. Copy the face
    Action #7. "Direct connect" with mental images.

  7. I've been studying Japanese for three hours a day for two years. I'm just now becoming decent at reading, and I'm still pretty bad at speaking. Don't set a deadline for yourself. Becoming fluent is a gradual process. You can get halfway decent in a year, somewhat okay in two years, pretty good in five years, fluent in ten years (I hope), if you stay focused. It's totally worth it.

  8. Wery useful information you have there. Listened to all of those and understood, why i did such a huge progress in my english last time. Now i can use it to learn even faster.

    Greetings from Russia

  9. He's really crazy! If learning languages would be that easy don't you have to ask yourself why you hardly have met any person who even speaks two languages correctly. This sweaty guy does not even speak English correctly !!! When judging by his age he should speak at least 50 languages fluently!

  10. He moves his arms around rapidly which makes sense now as to why he asked if the people in the back row could hear him. People probably learn to sit far away during his speaking sessions as to avoid a blow to the head.

  11. Dutch is a very difficult language with some really long words, the poor girl that went to Brazil understands that now. I know because I speak Dutch, Flanders, Frysian and Afrikaan Dutch variations. I speak other languages too, but not English! What a poor language with too few words. Schizze!

  12. Well the other thing what he short to say is if you know 2 languages (your native language and other) is most easy to learn 3 language

    Pues otra cosa que le falto decir es que si ya sabes un idioma es mas fácil aprender otro 🇲🇽

  13. Currently learning mongolian with my wife and this is a great help to hopefully accelerate the process so i can speak with her family

  14. I was under the provable fact that the whole planet was still trying to learn just one.

    Now that would be a real achievement instead of babbling.

  15. From my own experience, this sounds very helpful indeed, though effort is possibly trivialised. Thank you, Chris Lonsdale. I recognise a number of languages quite readily, albeit with minimal understanding, and am currently, tackling a third language, having concluded that speaking is the way to learn, though I lean toward understanding grammar and construction early in the process.

    Considering the errors in the address, I can't help wondering how Chris defines 'fluent' and 'native', how he learnt English and whether such error is common in speakers that have used the comprehensible input approach. By way of example, I refer to the following points in the video:
    00:13 – confused tenses
    00:44 – confused tenses
    03:06 – reference to 'we', which precedes the 'you' in the next example
    03:12 – The question is is "How do you do that?" (corrected in subtitle)
    05:22 – confused tenses and use of "that's how I looked like"

    I believe I heard 'looked', which makes sense in context of the finished portrait ("So that's what I looked like"), but his having switched to present tense means he should rather have used 'look' and covered any such situation.

  16. wow, this is one of the best TEDx lectures I've watched. Having learnt French (very slowly) and Portuguese (very quickly relative to French) this guy has the formula right here!! Excellent!

  17. The best way to learn several languages is to live in the environment where a particular language is spoken. Learners have to stay for three months in the places where the languages are spoken. This is a simple but an expensive way.

  18. i can remember as a kid in the high chair watching mum cooking dinner listening for a word to the fridge over and over until i got the same word again then going to the fridge yes that sound is that item

  19. I was a very bad scool boy, and too slow physicaly, but now im 39 a'd i learn things easier an faster than before, i have understand one thing, no matter what you have to learn, only matter 'involding and motivation', the english was the worse for me… But now i learn by miself whith watching movies in vo and music lyrics on YouTube. And i hopefull to learn piano… If i dont have to learn solfège….. Exatly the thing i cant enjoy……

  20. Moe Berg was a famous major league baseball player who spoke 10 languages.
    But he couldn't hit in any of them. . . . . . .Ba DUM bump … ksssshhh!

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  22. If you understand the brain in the neuronal level, you will understand that a person who has acquired a specific skill vs. a person who doesnt know that skill have the same types of brains. The difference is, one has more connections in this brain about the skill of expertise than the other. These connections have been pummeled through the neurons with consistent practice and exposure to learn the said skill. So yes, if you could learn a new language in 6 months, you could also do this with math, programming, a branch of science, anything.

  23. The human brain is amazing at learning any new thing. But what is also amazing is how the brain is so good at conserving its resources to not learn perceived useless things. The problem is in the latter, if you can bypass that then you are Gold.

  24. i can speak english! yeah! Just kidding, I use the Google translator,
    and not even he knows how to translate well what I mean :´)

  25. Easiest way to learn language….
    1) listen
    2)write
    3) communicate
    4) reading
    And you will be surprised by the results…..

  26. You cannot do it in six months. I self-learned english as kid easily, but it is process that still contunie and I actually learn new words all the time. Yes you can learn the core, but vast vocabulary is something you develop over longer time.

  27. "泡脑子"is pronounced accurately by Chris.And i'm happy that i've been using about 90% of the methods mentioned in this inspiring talk.
    In China,most juveniles are still learning English for the bloody exams coming from nowhere,they are all poisoned by the iniquitous universal EXAM called "高考".Even i have tried a dozen methods to figure out not to learn like a Zombie.

    Some of my countrymen uploaded this onto some popular local websites like :IQIYI,BILIBILI ,and so on;however, less than thousands have ever watched them.

  28. Perhaps this can be applied toward a computer language, as well? It should be an excellent experiment, because computers these days are babel-compatible with each other.

    Somehow, that hyphenated word did not show up as an error in speling. <<– this did.

  29. Well, just get a boyfriend and I can improve learning the language. BUT you have to be wanting to learn the language based on the needs or passion. Because when I went to France I had zero interest in learning French, even though I had some opportunities to go out with French men. I mean they spoke no English, how can I communicate when I didn’t even speak French? Oh I’m bilingual and bicultural in English and Japanese like mother tongue in both. I was immersed in and loved both culture and languages when I was learning. And yeah I had some boyfriends in both countries because I liked and enjoyed being in the English speaking countries. France?? Not so much. Most people there are extremely rude beyond believes. So the point is that you have to feel you want to socialize with the people in the language/immersed in a culture because you want to be a part of its society.
    Btw, I’m pretty good at learning languages but it IS impossible to learn a completely different language to your own in less than 2 months.

  30. I especially like 2 points he's addressed: 1- Visualise and link words to senses as a way to memorise them rather than parroting 2- Get the meaning and message rather than stoping at every single word, until by time the gap gets filled.

  31. When we hear somebody speaking we repeat silently what they say in order to understand it better (try to squeeze your tong and listen to someone to get the difference in understanding) – if you cannot repeat the sound – you filter it out from the speech you hear. Start learning sounds first. Then use this to learn words : pick up a word you want to say in a foreign language – get your picture for it and then mentally name that picture in the language you learn, repeat at least 5 times for each word. Then use a simple phrase with those words in the language you learn (do the same for the other words in the phrase). Repeat the process on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13 (yes, fibonacci rules). Use it in your every day life. Choose the words that you need but do not know (note down the words you would use but do not know to find them in the dictionnary or ask natives). If you do it for the next 6 months, you will speak the basics of the language quickly and get fluent in less than a year… (3 languages at native level, + other 3 almost fluent)

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