How Quantum Biology Might Explain Life’s Biggest Questions | Jim Al-Khalili | TED Talks

How Quantum Biology Might Explain Life’s Biggest Questions | Jim Al-Khalili | TED Talks

I’d like to introduce you
to an emerging area of science, one that is still speculative
but hugely exciting, and certainly one
that’s growing very rapidly. Quantum biology
asks a very simple question: Does quantum mechanics — that weird and wonderful
and powerful theory of the subatomic world
of atoms and molecules that underpins so much
of modern physics and chemistry — also play a role inside the living cell? In other words: Are there processes,
mechanisms, phenomena in living organisms
that can only be explained with a helping hand
from quantum mechanics? Now, quantum biology isn’t new; it’s been around since the early 1930s. But it’s only in the last decade or so
that careful experiments — in biochemistry labs,
using spectroscopy — have shown very clear, firm evidence
that there are certain specific mechanisms that require quantum mechanics
to explain them. Quantum biology brings together
quantum physicists, biochemists, molecular biologists —
it’s a very interdisciplinary field. I come from quantum physics,
so I’m a nuclear physicist. I’ve spent more than three decades trying to get my head
around quantum mechanics. One of the founders
of quantum mechanics, Niels Bohr, said, If you’re not astonished by it,
then you haven’t understood it. So I sort of feel happy
that I’m still astonished by it. That’s a good thing. But it means I study the very
smallest structures in the universe — the building blocks of reality. If we think about the scale of size, start with an everyday object
like the tennis ball, and just go down orders
of magnitude in size — from the eye of a needle down to a cell,
down to a bacterium, down to an enzyme — you eventually reach the nano-world. Now, nanotechnology may be
a term you’ve heard of. A nanometer is a billionth of a meter. My area is the atomic nucleus,
which is the tiny dot inside an atom. It’s even smaller in scale. This is the domain of quantum mechanics, and physicists and chemists
have had a long time to try and get used to it. Biologists, on the other hand,
have got off lightly, in my view. They are very happy with their
balls-and-sticks models of molecules. (Laughter) The balls are the atoms, the sticks
are the bonds between the atoms. And when they can’t build them
physically in the lab, nowadays, they have
very powerful computers that will simulate a huge molecule. This is a protein made up
of 100,000 atoms. It doesn’t really require much in the way
of quantum mechanics to explain it. Quantum mechanics
was developed in the 1920s. It is a set of beautiful and powerful
mathematical rules and ideas that explain the world of the very small. And it’s a world that’s very different
from our everyday world, made up of trillions of atoms. It’s a world built
on probability and chance. It’s a fuzzy world. It’s a world of phantoms, where particles can also behave
like spread-out waves. If we imagine quantum mechanics
or quantum physics, then, as the fundamental
foundation of reality itself, then it’s not surprising that we say quantum physics underpins
organic chemistry. After all, it gives us
the rules that tell us how the atoms fit together
to make organic molecules. Organic chemistry,
scaled up in complexity, gives us molecular biology,
which of course leads to life itself. So in a way, it’s sort of not surprising. It’s almost trivial. You say, “Well, of course life ultimately
must depend of quantum mechanics.” But so does everything else. So does all inanimate matter,
made up of trillions of atoms. Ultimately, there’s a quantum level where we have to delve into
this weirdness. But in everyday life,
we can forget about it. Because once you put together
trillions of atoms, that quantum weirdness
just dissolves away. Quantum biology isn’t about this. Quantum biology isn’t this obvious. Of course quantum mechanics
underpins life at some molecular level. Quantum biology is about looking
for the non-trivial — the counterintuitive ideas
in quantum mechanics — and to see if they do, indeed,
play an important role in describing the processes of life. Here is my perfect example
of the counterintuitiveness of the quantum world. This is the quantum skier. He seems to be intact,
he seems to be perfectly healthy, and yet, he seems to have gone around
both sides of that tree at the same time. Well, if you saw tracks like that you’d guess it was some
sort of stunt, of course. But in the quantum world,
this happens all the time. Particles can multitask,
they can be in two places at once. They can do more than one thing
at the same time. Particles can behave
like spread-out waves. It’s almost like magic. Physicists and chemists have had
nearly a century of trying to get used to this weirdness. I don’t blame the biologists for not having to or wanting
to learn quantum mechanics. You see, this weirdness is very delicate; and we physicists work very hard
to maintain it in our labs. We cool our system down
to near absolute zero, we carry out our experiments in vacuums, we try and isolate it
from any external disturbance. That’s very different from the warm,
messy, noisy environment of a living cell. Biology itself, if you think of
molecular biology, seems to have done very well
in describing all the processes of life in terms of chemistry —
chemical reactions. And these are reductionist,
deterministic chemical reactions, showing that, essentially, life is made
of the same stuff as everything else, and if we can forget about quantum
mechanics in the macro world, then we should be able to forget
about it in biology, as well. Well, one man begged
to differ with this idea. Erwin Schrödinger,
of Schrödinger’s Cat fame, was an Austrian physicist. He was one of the founders
of quantum mechanics in the 1920s. In 1944, he wrote a book
called “What is Life?” It was tremendously influential. It influenced Francis Crick
and James Watson, the discoverers of the double-helix
structure of DNA. To paraphrase a description
in the book, he says: At the molecular level,
living organisms have a certain order, a structure to them that’s very different from the random thermodynamic jostling
of atoms and molecules in inanimate matter
of the same complexity. In fact, living matter seems to behave
in this order, in a structure, just like inanimate matter
cooled down to near absolute zero, where quantum effects
play a very important role. There’s something special
about the structure — the order — inside a living cell. So, Schrödinger speculated that maybe
quantum mechanics plays a role in life. It’s a very speculative,
far-reaching idea, and it didn’t really go very far. But as I mentioned at the start, in the last 10 years, there have been
experiments emerging, showing where some of these
certain phenomena in biology do seem to require quantum mechanics. I want to share with you
just a few of the exciting ones. This is one of the best-known
phenomena in the quantum world, quantum tunneling. The box on the left shows
the wavelike, spread-out distribution of a quantum entity —
a particle, like an electron, which is not a little ball
bouncing off a wall. It’s a wave that has a certain probability
of being able to permeate through a solid wall, like a phantom
leaping through to the other side. You can see a faint smudge of light
in the right-hand box. Quantum tunneling suggests that a particle
can hit an impenetrable barrier, and yet somehow, as though by magic, disappear from one side
and reappear on the other. The nicest way of explaining it is
if you want to throw a ball over a wall, you have to give it enough energy
to get over the top of the wall. In the quantum world,
you don’t have to throw it over the wall, you can throw it at the wall,
and there’s a certain non-zero probability that it’ll disappear on your side,
and reappear on the other. This isn’t speculation, by the way. We’re happy — well, “happy”
is not the right word — (Laughter) we are familiar with this. (Laughter) Quantum tunneling
takes place all the time; in fact, it’s the reason our Sun shines. The particles fuse together, and the Sun turns hydrogen
into helium through quantum tunneling. Back in the 70s and 80s, it was discovered
that quantum tunneling also takes place inside living cells. Enzymes, those workhorses of life,
the catalysts of chemical reactions — enzymes are biomolecules that speed up
chemical reactions in living cells, by many, many orders of magnitude. And it’s always been a mystery
how they do this. Well, it was discovered that one of the tricks that enzymes
have evolved to make use of, is by transferring subatomic particles,
like electrons and indeed protons, from one part of a molecule
to another via quantum tunneling. It’s efficient, it’s fast,
it can disappear — a proton can disappear from one place,
and reappear on the other. Enzymes help this take place. This is research that’s been
carried out back in the 80s, particularly by a group
in Berkeley, Judith Klinman. Other groups in the UK
have now also confirmed that enzymes really do this. Research carried out by my group — so as I mentioned,
I’m a nuclear physicist, but I’ve realized I’ve got these tools
of using quantum mechanics in atomic nuclei, and so can apply
those tools in other areas as well. One question we asked is whether quantum tunneling
plays a role in mutations in DNA. Again, this is not a new idea;
it goes all the way back to the early 60s. The two strands of DNA,
the double-helix structure, are held together by rungs;
it’s like a twisted ladder. And those rungs of the ladder
are hydrogen bonds — protons, that act as the glue
between the two strands. So if you zoom in, what they’re doing
is holding these large molecules — nucleotides — together. Zoom in a bit more. So, this a computer simulation. The two white balls
in the middle are protons, and you can see that
it’s a double hydrogen bond. One prefers to sit on one side;
the other, on the other side of the two strands of the vertical lines
going down, which you can’t see. It can happen that
these two protons can hop over. Watch the two white balls. They can jump over to the other side. If the two strands of DNA then separate,
leading to the process of replication, and the two protons
are in the wrong positions, this can lead to a mutation. This has been known for half a century. The question is: How likely
are they to do that, and if they do, how do they do it? Do they jump across,
like the ball going over the wall? Or can they quantum-tunnel across,
even if they don’t have enough energy? Early indications suggest that
quantum tunneling can play a role here. We still don’t know yet
how important it is; this is still an open question. It’s speculative, but it’s one of those questions
that is so important that if quantum mechanics
plays a role in mutations, surely this must have big implications, to understand certain types of mutations, possibly even those that lead
to turning a cell cancerous. Another example of quantum mechanics
in biology is quantum coherence, in one of the most
important processes in biology, photosynthesis: plants
and bacteria taking sunlight, and using that energy to create biomass. Quantum coherence is the idea
of quantum entities multitasking. It’s the quantum skier. It’s an object that behaves like a wave, so that it doesn’t just move
in one direction or the other, but can follow multiple pathways
at the same time. Some years ago,
the world of science was shocked when a paper was published
showing experimental evidence that quantum coherence
takes place inside bacteria, carrying out photosynthesis. The idea is that the photon,
the particle of light, the sunlight, the quantum of light
captured by a chlorophyll molecule, is then delivered to what’s called
the reaction center, where it can be turned into
chemical energy. And in getting there,
it doesn’t just follow one route; it follows multiple pathways at once, to optimize the most efficient way
of reaching the reaction center without dissipating as waste heat. Quantum coherence taking place
inside a living cell. A remarkable idea, and yet evidence is growing almost weekly,
with new papers coming out, confirming that this
does indeed take place. My third and final example
is the most beautiful, wonderful idea. It’s also still very speculative,
but I have to share it with you. The European robin
migrates from Scandinavia down to the Mediterranean, every autumn, and like a lot of other
marine animals and even insects, they navigate by sensing
the Earth’s magnetic field. Now, the Earth’s magnetic field
is very, very weak; it’s 100 times weaker
than a fridge magnet, and yet it affects the chemistry —
somehow — within a living organism. That’s not in doubt —
a German couple of ornithologists, Wolfgang and Roswitha Wiltschko,
in the 1970s, confirmed that indeed, the robin does find its way by somehow
sensing the Earth’s magnetic field, to give it directional information —
a built-in compass. The puzzle, the mystery was:
How does it do it? Well, the only theory in town — we don’t know if it’s the correct theory,
but the only theory in town — is that it does it via something
called quantum entanglement. Inside the robin’s retina — I kid you not — inside the robin’s retina
is a protein called cryptochrome, which is light-sensitive. Within cryptochrome, a pair of electrons
are quantum-entangled. Now, quantum entanglement
is when two particles are far apart, and yet somehow remain
in contact with each other. Even Einstein hated this idea; he called it “spooky action
at a distance.” (Laughter) So if Einstein doesn’t like it,
then we can all be uncomfortable with it. Two quantum-entangled electrons
within a single molecule dance a delicate dance that is very sensitive
to the direction the bird flies in the Earth’s magnetic field. We don’t know if it’s
the correct explanation, but wow, wouldn’t it be exciting
if quantum mechanics helps birds navigate? Quantum biology is still in it infancy. It’s still speculative. But I believe it’s built on solid science. I also think that
in the coming decade or so, we’re going to start to see
that actually, it pervades life — that life has evolved tricks
that utilize the quantum world. Watch this space. Thank you. (Applause)

100 thoughts on “How Quantum Biology Might Explain Life’s Biggest Questions | Jim Al-Khalili | TED Talks

  1. Perhaps this will explain why I have been seeing birds, planes and insects appearing and disappearing out of thin air over the past 3 years.

  2. No excuse for putting up a vid with this kind of audio problem. Made it up to about a minute before turning it off.

  3. It is amazing how scientists and religious literalists are actually so much alike. They both make up a lot of speculative theories that screw up society and it takes them ages to backtrack and admit error.

  4. We have to continue to believe that there is no magic. Quantum tunnelling and entanglement looks like magic. May be there is a layer below quantum level which provides shortest path or shortest interaction or fastest interaction for particles. The purpose of the layer could be to maintain state/energy-level at quantum level.
    Any structure element can have just two goals to become part of that structure: maintain self existence and maintain equilibrium with surroundings. For this, layers may get created.
    When harsh energy of big bang started to dilute down during expansion, structures may get created. Now, universe continued to expand and lose energy, and so structures which already got created will start to become unstable. Only way for structure to survive this is by creating layers. There could be a lot of layers and structures.

  5. quantum tunnelling …big words it simply means when the particles are so small nothing can stop them leaking and its a phenomenon is this world it happens whenever the condition applies

  6. Can't wait for quantum computers and everything around it. Maybe it will help us understand quantum biology a little bit better too?

  7. Please clean up the microphone noise on this video… it sounds like the mic is rubbing against some scruff on his cheek.

  8. In this world people r already confused about life…n suddenly something comes like this

    What u expect from a poor guy?

  9. quantum biology might go a long way towards explaining evolution, since the great mystery of how an organism actually evolves (beyond the simplistic explanation of adapting and natural selection) has never been explained. What is it that makes organisms physically change at the molecular level to adapt to their environments? What signals this? What drafts the blueprint for the instructions? Certainly not any sort of thought process or will of the brain. Biology seems to "think" independently, in concert with the environment.

  10. These guys never explain away the obvious quantum mechanics for dummies stuff and assume we automatically have passed such obstacles.  Things like, "are particles passing in and out of other dimensions?",  "are particles traveling so fast they just seem to appear and disappear?", "are particles not where you see them because they are the both the particle you observe as well as the means by which you observe them?", "are particles actually traveling along infinite (I mean extreme finite) dimensional and directional highways thru the universe(s)?", "are walls serves?", "how many worlds could possibly exist smaller than the quantum?", "what is empty space between particles?", "what does it mean to split an atom?", "Isn't splitting an atom the same as rechanneling the otherwise organized flow of particles in and out of many dimensions into the 3-D classical mechanics world by causing a temporary cataclysm of collisions and breakdown of atomic matter?", and on and on.

  11. Oh! Here's biologists' best kept secret, an unasked and unanswered question about the quantum world:  "What naturally occurring  nano-sized quantum computing apparatus imbedded in biological matter has so organized and directed mutations of genes over such a short time frame spanning the lives of only 10^42 organisms to evolve such highly complex life forms?"  if only 10^120 possible chromosome orderings were possible, it would probabilistically take more like 10^50 replays of earth history to transverse thru enough random mutations to accomplish such magnitude of successful end results by a fluke of chance.  And it would take an advanced quantum computing device at that.  And "what natural algorithms did such quantum computing device run?"  And "how did they all originate?"  "How could such a quantum powered biological devise decide which mutations to foster good results?"  "How could such a biological devise bridge thru so many gazillion generations reaching long range goals?"  The last question reworded is, "how could a quantum guided cellular differentiation like mechanized process span thru a gazillion generations persevering information each generational step toward the end development of thousands of cooperating and interacting sub-organs?"

  12. "coulombrian physics? i have studied it, along with other misconceptions of elementary science"
    – Narim

  13. It makes sense.

    We are just conscious beings that are part of the universe, observing the universe. So, if the universe affects everything at the quantum level, then it should with humans as well.

    I would recommend the book "The Emperor's New Mind" by Roger Penrose

  14. damn.. a quantum compass.. future civilizations might use this phenomenon to navigate interstellar space, from very weak magnetic fields of distant stars

  15. I love scientists say birds evolved quantum entanglement navigational systems as if that explains anything. They have no idea how those systems, and the information processing scheme required to make use of them, got there.

  16. I want to start by giving an example
    I have a different viewpoint to Quantum Mechanics and Double Slit Experiment.
    In normal circumstances, human being is busy with either good deeds or bad deeds in the absence of anybody around him or when he thinks he is seen by nobody. We cannot know what he does is good or bad.
    In fact, in quantum mechanics the human being in the box may be busy with either good or bad or busy with both good deeds or bad deeds at the same time.
    However, when a sufi or darweesh thinks that there is somebody who always monitors him, he would behave differently as it is in double split experiment, and he would fix himself to do always the one which is good.
    The saying or hadith of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) that “Even you cannot see Allah, He always sees you” has a lot of meaning in this sense in our philosophy of life.
    In conclusion, if human being knows that Allah always sees him does not do wrong things.

  17. So tired of hearing people toss around the quantum word without even knowing what it is. Typical .. if you can't blind 'em with brilliance baffle 'em with bullshit..

  18. We cannot really expect Pastors and ministers AND Scientists trained in USA that they are telling the Truths…Because USA is the False Prophet(singular not plural)..a transformed beast that rise from earth out of the World Empire of England(land=earth)..USA is the center of information/hollywood in the world AND like Prophets it send Information religious but only lamb-like horns..Its written already..that USA is United with the Dragon, THe Beast with a Woman riding on its Back…will be in unison croaking like frogs.Revelation16:13

  19. Kind of tired of all these fame hungry 'camera scientists' only engaged in trying to popularize the fact that they are now just grasping at straws and juggling a few new concepts with fancy names every year in stead just communicating that the field is basically stuck.. they simply refuse to go back to square one on a whole number of assumptions. 'Quantum Biology' is just a term it has no body of evidence whatsoever. But I bet Jim is touting it becase they need to popularize the next fancy theory that is not really a theory at all. Just throw out bunch of questions and some other field (Biology this time) so it looks like you're actually discovered something and these 'new' experiments are not as old as Einsteins legacy itself. Just get off the stage with this blatant confirmation bias games and let fresh brains look at these problems and have their say too. Field creeping and word juggling speculations is not science.

  20. We humans have the same magnetite present in our skulls, and the pineal gland (third eye) is rather hard to understand without quantum effects. I believe it is a mix of quantum effects, sacred geometry, an innate nature of the cosmos for spawning life on a wide scale (aka life springing from rocks, energy(light) and water; look it up) and the most important ingredient; consciousness (which I also think might explain the aforementioned innate life-spawning nature of the cosmos) that makes up all life.

  21. At least, while all being speculative, we know this all came about through the process of evolution. So, how is it we know yet not what it is, or how it works, but we know that this thing we are so ignorant about has come into being through an evolution? How is that the behavior and properties of the most (known) fundamental sub-atomic particles could evolve?

  22. Most important words here … We don't know , We Think , We speculate … so basically YOU DON"T KNOW ANYTHING!!!

  23. Summary: maybe dna mutations involve quantum tunnelling, maybe the robin's magnetic wayfinding involves spookyactionatadistance.

  24. QM is pure nonsense. There are components that are critical that are unknown or undiscovered. We are 100% lost at this point. Trying to understand the life william shakespeare by analyzing his writing, and we have just discovered the A to Z Alphabet

  25. قتل الخراسون الذين هم في غفله ساهون يسالون اين يوم الدين) اتمني ان لا تكون منهم

  26. انت تزور الواقع ام تروج لفكره ما الهدف من الكلام كله تزوير باسم العلم للاسف

  27. "Interdisciplinary"- that MUST be the way forward!
    Life can be magical.
    "Multiple pathways at once"-sounds like the way we think.
    CS Lewis said something to the effect that the human brain only comprehends a tea cup of the ocean and believes it knows the ocean.

  28. Geese! They want to explain life as originating from the things in the universe – why can't we see that it is the other way around?

  29. Jim makes science really exciting ! When I was growing up in the 1980's science class was like watching paint dry !

  30. It's like a marble, it will always roll down …. like us or lower species of animals will always sway to the way it was created. Man is always trying to cheat quantum physics. Thought is quantum physics. I can see it between space…. particles of energy.

  31. Astrology said it all . The stars controls us …. gravity pull. The moon the sun . That's why the earth rotates we live we die. No sense in grieving. Were like leaves on a tree.

  32. No misunderstanding; I can't wrap my head around whatever came before the first cell (of evolution), I would need a really big (towering) MAGA hat, (or just President Trump's brainpower,) but, which sounds lower to me, what would be the definition used to define 'life'. That would be a difference where this label is placed at 3:52.

    Thank you very much for your contribution. Listening to you sounds like quantum physics is rightfully totally new to me. (And it is to be honest.) Massively interesting, and should be treated well by us at any stage of the life cycle. It's pretty save to say we don't understand (yet), so if we just could have a few hundred years more that would be nice.

    Sounds like it's alive. So I donate myself back to nature, and quantum mechanics. Please don't break any of those tiny machinery. I won't be trying to understand a violent big bang (theory) or a more pleasant wave series of building life, whatever it is; we have Quantum Biology. And religion (showing of our major league fighting skills).

    Evolution probably never stopped sprouting. So, back to Quantum Biology then, if I may stop interrupting you, this has probably got nothing to do with it. Thanks again, I find it well founded and informed.

  33. In other words, quantum processes that naturally occur with the molecules composed of quantum particles occur in the molecules that compose life.

    False Messiah @LeoYohann

  34. Quantum biology? Hahaha.

    Why not? Why not quantum financing? Quantum cuisine! Quantum dildos!!!

    Add Quantum to just about any word and suddenly you get a TED talk LOL

  35. This is a worrisome trend in physics. Pretending they override all other sciences
    and that their most extreme hypotheses are mainstream. He glosses over extreme
    variations in scale with idiotic statements like 'of course its quantum physics' . If its
    counter-intuitive it must be true. If chemists or biologists disagrees they must be wrong .

  36. this is easy, atoms are 99% empty space, everything is made of atoms, of course atoms can pass through other atoms in the quantum world Duuhh , its all empty space anyways /s

  37. Is there such a thing as Quantum Stupidity that some climate change denyers have seemingly embraced? Time is short to wonder about the existence of yet another form of quantum theory. Is there a "quantum solution" that might change our feared demise on this planet?

  38. God.
    the universe is a fractal, with the sphere as one of the main properties
    we indwell life just like life massively indwells us

  39. His description of tunneling is wrong. The concepts of particles and waves are purely macroscopic. You can never observe an object "passing" a wall, hence it is irrelevant to talk about any passage. Fun thing is that he of course know this – but still push these poor analogies. In QM there are no particles nor any waves.

  40. I have been wondering for a long time whether quantum mechanics might explain homeopathy. Why it often does not work, but occasionally works very well. With a decent explanation of how homeopathy functions, we could finally get it to work properly.

  41. So life is showing us how it can exhibit quantum phenomena at a macro scale through highly ordered and regulated biological processes. Very interesting.

  42. Would like to know why they think entanglement might explain how the bird navigates. All I know about entanglement is basically that if you look at one of the entangled particles the other has the opposite spin, is there more to entanglement that I'm not aware of? If not, then how can that possibly be used in navigation?

  43. Consciousness is a fractal (independent of scale). There are many layers to consciousness, in many different forms. We are giants made out of trillions of conscious cells. Every vessel of water is a vessel of Consciousness. The cycle of water is the cycle of the Soul.

  44. very likable guy – it must be said that anyone who says 'I study the smallest particles in the universe' might as well walk off the stage.

  45. As evolution started from the atom-molecule size, it may be more normal for evolution to utilize quantum mechanics than us as bigger creatures after many years after evolution, finally gaining enough intelligence then understanding quantum symptoms

  46. Weird. I always have the idea that our cells and DNA are somewhat conscious and now life manages to do tricks for advantageous proposes in the quantum realm. Does anyone else see this?

  47. here i will save you some time, from the last moments of the video– "Quantum Biology is speculative"

  48. In other words, there’s more than meets the eye? Could it be possible there really might be an invisible man in the sky?

  49. Just to start I do rather one make fun of me to much not to steal my car. With the chemical in the air in combination with fluid that would ingest the air born of intentional property that in the mind are against in the atmosphere to move but a stagnate congestion and than remove the intellectual inheritance and give away the mistake that was never a mistake rather just a huge test worthy understanding of protection that would create someone for no reason would be just as disappointing to more than not having happened at all. I don't believe in using life sources that disappoint the cusp of what halves in support for a reluctant change and for that support not exist.

  50. Our technology is on the cusp of permanently changing what it means to be human. In the very near future, high technology will begin to be directly integrated into the human body. "Hardware" and "Biology" will begin to merge into one new system. Throughout history, the biggest issue facing humanity, has been our flawed biology, and the hundreds of ailments, and illnesses than can attack the human body swiftly, and without notice. It is hightime technology went about making the human body immune from as many of these diseases as possible. Today we ware technology; tomorrow, our technology will reside within the body itself. In the future, micro-technology will monitor all bodily functions, and go about optimizing all biological processes, and functions. Information chips are already being inserted into the brain, providing artificial memory, and brain function. We are on the cusp of a brilliant new era in human history. Indescribable wonders await us! A whole new human race is about to emerge!

  51. Do realize that when you get tiny the molecules get bigger. (And a lot stronger.) Not sure how this in any way has anything to do with this. My best guess is I'm on the wrong Comments section. Still true though.

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