Houston We Have a Podcast: Reach New Heights and Reveal the Unknown

Houston We Have a Podcast: Reach New Heights and Reveal the Unknown


>>”HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PODCAST.” WELCOME TO THE OFFICIAL PODCAST OF THE NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, EPISODE 63, “REACH NEW HEIGHTS “AND REVEAL THE UNKNOWN.” I’M GARY JORDAN, AND I’LL BE YOUR HOST TODAY. SO IF YOU’RE NEW TO THE SHOW, WE BRING IN EXPERTS TO TALK ABOUT ALL THE COOLEST PARTS ABOUT WHAT’S GOING ON RIGHT HERE AT NASA. NOW, THE PODCAST IS NORMALLY AN AUDIO SHOW. BUT WE DID SOMETHING A LITTLE EXTRA FOR THIS EPISODE. JUST RECENTLY, WE HAD A SPECIAL VISIT FROM VICE PRESIDENT MIKE PENCE, WHO ADDRESSED AN EXCITING FUTURE FOR US HERE AT NASA. AND WHILE HE WAS HERE, I WAS LUCKY ENOUGH TO SIT DOWN AND CHAT WITH SOME OF NASA’S LEADERS ABOUT THIS FUTURE. SO OUR GUESTS ON “HOUSTON, “WE HAVE A PODCAST” TODAY ARE JIM BRIDENSTINE AND MARK GEYER. MR. BRIDENSTINE IS THE 13TH ADMINISTRATOR OF NASA, SWORN IN ON APRIL 23, 2018. AND MR. GEYER IS THE 12TH DIRECTOR OF THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, AS OF MAY 25, 2018. WE HAD A GREAT DISCUSSION ABOUT THIS VERY EXCITING PERIOD WE’RE IN FOR HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT, AND WHAT IT MEANS FOR US HERE AT HOUSTON. WE DISCUSS NASA AS A WHOLE, COMMERCIAL CREW, THE COMMERCIALIZATION OF SPACE, AND THE MISSION AND DIRECTION OF AMERICA’S SPACE AGENCY. SO WITH NO FURTHER DELAY, LET’S JUMP RIGHT AHEAD TO OUR TALK WITH NASA ADMINISTRATOR JIM BRIDENSTINE, AND DIRECTOR OF THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, MARK GEYER. ENJOY. [ MUSIC ]>>T-MINUS 5 SECONDS AND COUNTING– MARK. MISSION START. T-0– ALL LAUNCH COMMAND LIGHTS ARE GREEN. OH, THERE SHE GOES. “HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PODCAST.” [ MUSIC ]>>JIM AND MARK, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR COMING ON THE PODCAST TODAY. THIS IS SUCH AN EXCITING DAY, BUT ALSO JUST AN EXCITING TIME FOR US HERE AT THE AGENCY. SO I APPRECIATE YOU COMING ON TODAY.>>GREAT TO BE HERE.>>YEAH, THANKS.>>SO-SO JUST TO SORT OF RECAP THE EVENTS OF TODAY, WE HAD VICE PRESIDENT MIKE PENCE HERE, UH, TO ADDRESS SOME FANTASTIC MISSIONS AND-AND OPPORTUNITIES THAT WE HAVE HERE AT NASA TO LOOK FORWARD TO. IS– I’M– THAT’S WHAT I– I REALLY MEAN, “IT’S AN EXCITING TIME.” SO IF WE CAN JUST GIVE, LIKE, A QUICK SUMMARY, UH, JIM, IF YOU WANT TO–>>YOU BET.>>–UH, FOR WHAT WAS SAID TODAY.>>SO IT WAS, UH– IT WAS HIS OPPORTUNITY TO COME AND LAY OUT, FOR THE FOLKS HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, BUT ALSO, FOR EVERYBODY WHO WORKS AT NASA NATIONALLY–>>MM-HMM.>>–UH, REALLY HIS VISION FOR CIVIL SPACE, FOR OUR JOURNEY BACK TO THE MOON, FOR COMMERCIALIZING LOW EARTH ORBIT, UH, FOR BUILDING SLS AND ORION, TO GET HUMANS DEEPER INTO SPACE THAN EVER BEFORE. UM, AND REALLY GET, UH– GET THE– GET NASA AND ITS WORKFORCE ENTHUSED ABOUT THE NEXT CHAPTER OF HUMANS IN SPACE. AND SO, UM, I WOULD, UH, I WOULD SAY, BASED ON HIS-HIS SPEECH TODAY, I-I THINK– I THINK IT WAS EFFECTIVE. [ LAUGHS ]>>I ABSOLUTELY AGREE. AND HE WAS HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER BECAUSE WE DO PLAY AN INTEGRAL ROLE. SO MARK, WHAT IS– WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER IN ALL OF THIS?>>SO JOHNSON HAS, IN THE PAST, AND STILL, PLAYS AN INCREDIBLE CORE ROLE TO HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT.>>MM-HMM.>>SO WE DO– OF COURSE, WE DO THE OBVIOUS THINGS– THE ASTRONAUTS ARE TRAINED AND PICKED AND FLOWN FROM HERE. WE DO OPERATIONS, SO WE CONTROL THE SPACECRAFT AND WORK WITH THE CREWS HERE IN-IN MISSION OPERATIONS. AND THEN, ALSO, WE DO DESIGN WORK, UH, LIKE ORION, PROGRAMS LIKE ORION. WE MANAGE PROGRAMS LIKE SPACE STATION, WHICH TIES, UH, THE WORLD TOGETHER, ON AN INCREDIBLE PROGRAM. THEN WE DO HUMAN HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE, WHICH IS PART OF SEEING HOW THE BODY BEHAVES IN SPACE, WHICH KIND OF TIES TO OUR WORK WITH ASTRONAUTS. AND THEN WHAT-WHAT WAS GREAT ABOUT THE VISIT TODAY, I THINK, WAS HE ALSO VISITED, UH, THE CURATION FACILITY–>>THAT’S RIGHT.>>–WHICH IS WHERE IN THE– REALLY, IN THE UNITED STATES, WHENEVER WE BRING SAMPLES BACK FROM OTHER WORLDS, THEY COME HERE TO THE– TO THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER. SO THAT’S A KEY PIECE, I THINK, A LOT OF PEOPLE FORGET THAT WE DO.>>YEAH. A HUGE ARRAY OF ACTIVITIES, A LOT OF IT DEALING WITH RESEARCH, AND SORT OF TRYING TO UNDERSTAND WHAT WE NEED TO KNOW TO GO OUT FURTHER INTO SPACE.>>EXACTLY.>>AND THEN THE ACTUAL TECHNOLOGIES BEHIND THAT. UH, JIM, YOU WERE– YOU WERE, UM, A-APPOINTED, UH, VERY RECENTLY HERE. SO YOU’VE BEEN– WHEN-WHEN YOU FIRST CAME ON, YOU SAID YOU RECOGNIZE NASA AS A FAMILY.>>YEAH.>>UM, NOW THAT YOU’VE BEEN HERE A COUPLE MONTHS, DO YOU FEEL LIKE YOU’RE PART OF THE FAMILY?>>WITHOUT QUESTION. UH, FOLKS HAVE BEEN JUST SO, UH, WELCOMING AND NICE. UH, IN FACT, I HAD MY FAMILY HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER JUST A COUPLE OF WEEKS AGO. UM, AND WHAT AN AMAZING OPPORTUNITY FOR MY KIDS, TO BE ABLE TO INTERACT WITH THE BRILLIANT FOLKS THAT ARE HERE, AND, UM, REALLY– HAVE THE– HAVE A CHANCE TO SPEND TIME WITH SOME OF THE SMARTEST MINDS IN OUR COUNTRY. UM, SO YEAH, IT-IT HAS BEEN– IT HAS REALLY FELT LIKE A FAMILY. AND-AND HAVING MY FAMILY HERE REALLY, UH, I THINK, UH, SOLIDIFIED THAT.>>THAT’S RIGHT. SO YOU’VE BEEN– YOU’VE BEEN A PROPONENT FOR SPACE FLIGHT AND-AND NASA, JUST IN GENERAL, EVEN THROUGHOUT YOUR CAREER. NOW, COMING HERE AND BEING PART OF NASA, WHEN SOMEONE COMES UP TO YOU NOW AND SAYS, “WHAT DOES NASA DO?” KNOWING-KNOWING KIND OF, WHAT WE DO FROM THE INSIDE NOW–>>YOU BET.>>–WHAT DO YOU SAY?>>WE INCREASE THE AWESOME. THAT’S WHAT WE DO. [ LAUGHS ]>>I LOVE IT.>>AS A– WE-WE ARE A PART OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT THAT WORKS ON REALLY, REALLY AWESOME THINGS.>>YEAH.>>AND, UM, YOU KNOW, THE– MY-MY JOB, AS THE NASA ADMINISTRATOR, IS REALLY FOCUSED ON MAKING SURE THAT WE’RE FOLLOWING THROUGH ON THE PRESIDENT’S SPACE POLICY DIRECTIVES.>>MM-HMM.>>HIS FIRST SPACE POLICY DIRECTIVE IS THAT WE’RE GOING TO THE MOON. AND WE’RE GONNA GO IN A SUSTAINABLE WAY. HIS SECOND SPACE POLICY DIRECTIVE IS ABOUT REGULATION, AND ENABLING COMMERCIAL PARTNERSHIPS. AND OF COURSE, HIS THIRD SPACE POLICY DIRECTIVE IS ABOUT SPACE SITUATIONAL AWARENESS, AND SPACE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT. UM, AND OF COURSE, NASA PLAYS A ROLE AND/OR WILL BENEFIT FROM EACH OF THOSE. UH, AND SO, WE’RE REALLY PUTTING TOGETHER THE ARCHITECTURE THAT, UM, THAT FOLLOWS THROUGH ON THE PRESIDENT’S DIRECTIVES. AND THEN, UM, WATCHING, YOU KNOW, WHAT THE GREAT WORKFORCE HERE DOES IN ENABLING OUR MISSIONS TO GO FORWARD IN A REALLY AMAZING WAY. SO PEOPLE SAY, YOU KNOW, “WHAT DOES NASA DO?” UM, A LOT OF PEOPLE– YOU KNOW, YOU THINK ABOUT THE HISTORY. THERE’S A LOT OF AWESOMENESS IN THE HISTORY. UH, AND YOU THINK ABOUT THE SPACE SHUTTLES, AND THE RETIREMENT OF THE SPACE SHUTTLES.>>MM-HMM.>>UM, PEOPLE REMEMBER THAT. UM, REMEMBER THOSE DAYS GOING BACK TO, YOU KNOW, GEMINI AND APOLLO, AND MERCURY BEFORE THAT, UM, AND OF COURSE, THEY REMEMBER THE SPACE SHUTTLES. BUT AT THIS POINT, WE’RE FOCUSED ON GETTING AMERICAN ASTRONAUTS TO LAUNCH ON AMERICAN ROCKETS AGAIN FROM AMERICAN SOIL FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE 2011, THE RETIREMENT OF THE SPACE SHUTTLES. UM, AND-AND SO, UM, WE’RE GONNA GET THERE, AND, UH, LOOK FORWARD TO BEING AT THE HELM WHEN ALL OF THAT HAPPENS AGAIN.>>THAT’S RIGHT. THIS IS ONE– THIS IS ONE OF THOSE EXCITING THINGS THAT I WAS TALKING ABOUT.>>OH YEAH.>>YOU KNOW, LAUNCHING FROM AMERICAN SOIL AGAIN. SO WHEN WE’RE– I DO WANT TO GO THROUGH ALL OF THESE EXCITING THINGS, RIGHT? LAUNCHING FROM AMERICAN SOIL, THIS-THIS COMMERCIALIZATION, THIS-THIS DEEP SPACE EXPLORATION. BUT I WANT TO KNOW, S-SINCE I HAVE YOU HERE, WHAT’S YOUR ROLE, AS THE ADMINISTRATOR, AT NASA, TO MAKE ALL OF THIS HAPPEN?>>SO AGAIN, UH, FOLLOWING THROUGH ON THE PRESIDENT’S SPACE POLICY DIRECTIVES–>>MM-HMM.>>AND THEN, ULTIMATELY, UH, GUIDING THE AGENCY AS-AS YOU THINK ABOUT THE POLICY AND THE– AND THE DIRECTIONS THAT-THAT WE’RE– THAT-THAT– THE DIRECTIONS THAT WE’RE TAKING. UM, YOU KNOW, THE– YOU KNOW, MY-MY ROLE IS REALLY GUIDANCE. UM, AND I WORK A LOT WITH THE INTER-AGENCY. UM, A LOT OF PEOPLE THINK SPACE AND THEY THINK NASA. BUT, UH, FOR ALL OF OUR COMMERCIAL PARTNERS, A LOT OF THEM PROVIDE THINGS IN SPACE THAT ARE LICENSED, IF YOU WILL, BY THE FAA OFFICE OF COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION. WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT, UM, YOU KNOW, REMOTE SENSING AND IMAGERY, ALL OF– ALL OF THAT IS LICENSED BY THE-THE COMMERCE DEPARTMENT THROUGH-THROUGH NOAA, UH, SO-SO THERE-THERE’S A LOT OF ACTIVITY IN SPACE. THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY, THE DEPARTMENT OF-OF TRANSPORTATION. UH, THERE’S A LOT OF ACTIVITY THAT ISN’T SPECIFIC TO NASA, WHERE WE NEED INTER-AGENCY KIND OF COLLABORATION. SO I WORK WITH THE INTER-AGENCY. UM, I ALSO WORK AS-AS A FORMER MEMBER OF CONGRESS. UH, I WORK ON THE HILL, TO MAKE SURE THAT, UM, OUR, YOU KNOW, BUDGET REQUIREMENTS ARE-ARE BEING MET TO ACCOMPLISH THE OBJECTIVES SET FORTH BY THE PRESIDENT, AND OF COURSE, BY CONGRESS. UH, THEY AUTHORIZE, YOU KNOW, WHAT WE’RE SUPPOSED TO BE DOING. AND OF COURSE, THEY APPROPRIATE THE FUNDS TO ACCOMPLISH THOSE OBJECTIVES. SO, UM, YOU KNOW, MY GOAL IS TO MAKE SURE THAT WE ARE WITHIN-WITHIN THE LAW, THAT WE’RE FOLLOWING THROUGH ON THE PRESIDENT’S GUIDANCE. UH, AND THAT, UM, AT THE END OF THE DAY, UH, WE’RE-WE’RE HEADING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION.>>SO WITH THIS GUIDANCE, WITH-WITH THESE DIRECTIVES, UM, MARK, IN THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, WHAT ARE WE DOING TO SORT OF TAKE THIS PATH?>>SO WE HAVE, OF COURSE, UM– WE’RE FINISHING, UH, THE COMMERCIAL CREW VEHICLES. AND PART OF OUR JOB AT JOHNSON SPACE CENTER IS TO BE KIND OF THE SPACECRAFT EXPERTS.>>OKAY.>>SO WE’RE FOLLOWING ALONG WITH THE PROVIDERS, AND FOLLOWING ALONG ON THE DESIGN, AND CHECKING THE REQUIREMENTS. SO WE’RE GETTING INTO A CERTIFICATION PART OF THAT. ARE WE READY? ARE THESE VEHICLES MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS? ARE THEY READY TO PUT OUR CREWS IN ‘EM? AND THAT’S GONNA BE ESSENTIAL, UM, BECAUSE WE’RE TRYING TO BASICALLY OPERATE THE SPACE STATION, KEEP UP THE SPACE STATION, AND AS JIM SAID, FLY FROM U.S. SOIL.>>MM-HMM.>>KEEP– CUT THE COSTS DOWN. SO A KEY PART OF THAT IS FINISHING THAT PART OF THE JOB.>>HMM.>>AND THEN ON SPACE STATION, OF COURSE, WE’RE DOING RESEARCH FOR HOW THE HUMAN BODY BEHAVES IN LONG DURATION. AND THAT’S A KEY PART OF ANY EXPLORATION PLAN, RIGHT? HOW-HOW ARE WE GOING TO KEEP OUR CREWS SAFE AND HEALTHY FOR THESE LONG DURATION MISSIONS? SO THAT’S A BIG PART THAT WE’RE DOING TODAY THAT APPLIES. THEN SLS ORION, UH, AS I’VE MENTIONED BEFORE MANY TIMES, SO WE’RE-WE’RE ALMOST READY TO FLY.>>MM-HMM.>>UH, IN 2020, WE’LL BE FLYIN’. AND THOSE ARE KEY MISSIONS THAT ENABLE, UH, SPACE, UH, POLICY DIRECTIVE NUMBER ONE, GOING BACK TO THE MOON. ‘CAUSE YOU NEED THE KINDA ENERGY THAT SLS PROVIDES, AND THE KIND OF SYSTEMS THAT ORION PROVIDES TO GET A CREW OUT PAST THE MOON.>>YEAH.>>SO THOSE ARE GONNA BE VERY VISIBLE THINGS IN THE NEAR TERM. AND THEN, REALLY, WE’VE BEEN WORKING, YOU KNOW, FOR A WHILE ABOUT WHAT WE’RE GOING TO DO AROUND THE MOON, RIGHT? HOW WE’RE GOING TO USE THIS GATEWAY TO BASICALLY PROVIDE ACCESS TO THE MOON. AND SO WE’RE IN THE EARLY STAGES, BUT JOHNSON PLAYS A KEY ROLE IN-IN HOW THAT’S GOING TO WORK AND HOW THAT MIGHT COME TOGETHER. AND WE USE OUR EXPERIENCE IN HOW TO PARTNER WITH PEOPLE, BOTH INTERNATIONAL AND COMMERCIAL, TO FIGURE OUT THE SMARTEST WAYS TO MAKE THAT HAPPEN. SO WE HAVE A LOT OF PIECES THAT WE’RE PULLING TOGETHER TO HELP NASA IMPLEMENT THAT PLAN.>>THAT’S GREAT.>>WHEN-WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT THE HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY, WHICH MARK MENTIONED, THAT’S ONE OF THE BIG REASONS, UM, THE FIRST SPACE POLICY DIRECTIVE, UH, BY THE PRESIDENT IS TO GO BACK TO THE MOON. WE-WE KNOW, BECAUSE OF THE GREAT WORK DONE HERE AT JOHNSON, WE KNOW WHAT HAPPENS TO HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY IN A MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT. WE KNOW THAT, YOU KNOW, YOUR-YOUR BONE MASS WILL DECREASE BY ABOUT 1% TO 3% PER MONTH. AND THERE ARE WAYS TO MITIGATE AGAINST THAT, BUT, UM– BUT THERE WILL BE A DEGRADATION OF THE BONE MASS. WE KNOW THAT THE HEART WILL BE DECONDITIONED. UM, WE KNOW THAT THE NEUROVESTIBULAR SYSTEM GETS, UM, THROWN OUT OF WHACK WHILE YOU’RE IN A MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT, WHEN YOU COME BACK TO A-A GRAVITY ENVIRONMENT. SO THE QUESTION IS, YOU KNOW, IF WE’RE GONNA SEND ASTRONAUTS TO MARS, THEY’RE GONNA BE IN THAT MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT FOR SIX, SEVEN, EIGHT, NINE MONTHS.>>MM-HMM.>>UM, AND ONCE THEY’RE AT MARS, THERE’S NO COMIN’ HOME FOR AT LEAST TWO YEARS. WELL, THE MOON GIVES US AN OPPORTUNITY, UM, TO-TO PROVE OUT, YOU KNOW, CAN– YOU KNOW, ARE-ARE THERE, UM– ARE THERE WAYS THAT WE CAN HAVE AN ASTRONAUT IN A MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT FOR SIX MONTHS, AND THEN SEND THEM TO THE MOON, AND SEE IF THAT REVERSES THE EFFECTS? LIKE, WH-WHEN YOU’RE IN 1/6 G, WHICH IS THE SURFACE OF THE MOON, UM, DOES THAT REVERSE THE EFFECTS THAT YOU HAD IN MICROGRAVITY? UM, AND IF IT DOES, THEN WE WOULD KNOW THAT IN 1/3 G, WHICH IS MARS, UH, IT WOULD PROBABLY ALSO BE EFFECTIVE.>>MM-HMM.>>UM, BUT THE REALITY IS, WE CAN’T SEND ASTRONAUTS FOR THE FIRST TIME AFTER BEING IN A MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT FOR SEVEN MONTHS, PUT THEM ON A– ON A SURFACE OF ANOTHER WORLD AND HAVE THEM BE PERFECT. THEY HAVE TO BE PERFECT IN ORDER TO STAY ALIVE FOR TWO YEARS.>>YEAH.>>UM, AND PROVING THAT OUT AT THE MOON IS REALLY THE BEST WAY TO DO IT. AND SO, UM, THAT’S WHAT SPACE POLICY DIRECTIVE ONE IS ALL ABOUT, AS WELL AS RETIRING THE RISK FOR A LOT OF THE TECHNOLOGIES AND THE CAPABILITIES.>>THAT’S RIGHT.>>YEAH.>>YEAH, THAT’S– IT’S ONE OF THE THINGS– ONE OF THE NICE THINGS, I THINK, ABOUT THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION IS THAT IT’S SO CLOSE. 250 MILES SOUNDS PRETTY FAR. BUT HONESTLY, IT’S PRETTY CLOSE TO HOME. IF ANYTHING GOES WRONG, YOU CAN COME BACK. IT’S THE PERFECT PLACE, REALLY, TO TEST A LOT OF THESE CAPABILITIES. AND THAT’S, I THINK, WHERE THE COMMERCIAL CREW COMES IN, RIGHT– NOW WE’RE DOING THIS CERTIFICATION PROCESS. WE’RE WORKING WITH SPACEX AND BOEING VERY CLOSELY, UH, TO PROVIDE US THE CAPABILITY FOR LOWER– FOR ACCESS TO LOW EARTH ORBIT. BUT IT’S NOT JUST THAT, RIGHT? WE’RE TALKING ABOUT THE SPACE STATION. UH, UH– WE’RE ENDING DIRECT FEDERAL FUNDING IN 2025. BUILDING A LOW EARTH ORBIT ECONOMY, SOMETHING THAT’S, I DON’T THINK, BEEN DONE BEFORE. WHAT’S– SO THAT’S PART OF THIS DIRECTIVE, RIGHT, IS ESTABLISHING AN ECONOMY IN SPACE. SO HOW ARE WE DOING THAT?>>YEAH, THAT’S A– IT’S A GREAT QUESTION. AND WE’RE GOING TO HAVE TO WORK THROUGH IT.>>YEAH?>>UM, YOU-YOU CAN IMAGINE, UM, THERE’S ALL KINDS OF TECHNOLOGIES AND CAPABILITIES THAT HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED ALREADY. AND-AND MARK HAS BEEN REALLY GOOD ABOUT TALKING ABOUT HOW THE SPACE STATION, THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, HAS REALLY BEEN A-A KEY DRIVER OF ENABLING US TO-TO COMMERCIALIZE LOW EARTH ORBIT.>>MM-HMM.>>IF THERE IS NO SPACE STATION, THERE WOULD BE NO COMMERCIALIZATION. AND SO, UM, IT HAS BEEN A VERY EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR BUILDING THE SPACE ECONOMY, IF YOU WILL. AND NOW, WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS, EVEN EXPERIMENTS THAT ARE HAPPENING RIGHT NOW, YOU THINK ABOUT FIBER OPTICS BEING MANUFACTURED ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, WHICH COULD, UM, DRIVE DOWN THE COST FOR, IN ESSENCE, MAKING, UM, NOT JUST AMERICA, BUT THE WORLD MORE CONNECTED. YOU THINK ABOUT, UM, THE ABILITY TO PRODUCE PHARMACEUTICALS IN A MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT, WHERE YOU CAN, UM, DO THINGS THAT YOU CANNOT DO ON EARTH. YOU THINK ABOUT, UM, TAKING ADULT STEM CELLS AND 3D PRINTING HUMAN ORGANS, UH, TO INCREASE THE-THE– YOU KNOW, THE LIVES OF-OF HUMANS. ALL OF THESE THINGS ARE BEING DEVELOPED RIGHT NOW, UH, WITH THE SUPPORT OF NASA ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. AND EACH ONE OF THOSE THINGS IS A MARKET UNTO ITSELF.>>MM-HMM.>>UH, AND THERE’S SO MUCH MORE, RIGHT?>>YEAH.>>SO, WHAT WE WANNA MAKE SURE– AND ON A-ANOTHER PIECE OF THIS, YOU KNOW, WE TALK ABOUT COMMERCIAL CREW. WE’RE GOING TO BE LAUNCHING COMMERCIAL CREW HERE, UM, IN THE NEXT YEAR. WE’RE TALKING ABOUT, AS-AS-AS WE’VE TALKED ABOUT, SENDING AMERICAN ASTRONAUTS ON AMERICAN ROCKETS FROM AMERICAN SOIL. ALL OF THAT IS FANTASTIC. BUT THESE COMMERCIAL CREW PROVIDERS, AND MANY– THEY-THEY HAVE SEATS. THEY HAVE– THEY HAVE SEVEN SEATS ON THEIR SPACECRAFT, WHICH MEANS WE COULD BE FLYING TOURISTS TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. UH, IN OTHER WORDS, THERE’S– AND I’M NOT SAYING WE’RE GONNA DO THAT. I’M SAYING, THAT IS AN OPPORTUNITY THAT WE NEED TO LOOK AT.>>MM-HMM.>>UH, BECAUSE THERE COULD BE A DAY WHEN, UM, WE HAVE NOT JUST TOURISTS BUT, UM, YOU KNOW, DIFFERENT TYPES OF SCIENTISTS, UM, DIFFERENT TYPES OF EVEN JOURNALISTS, UM, FLYING TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, UH, TO SHARE WITH THE WORLD KIND OF WHAT’S-WHAT’S HAPPENING, UH, IN-IN LOW EARTH ORBIT. SO THERE’S ALL KINDS OF WAYS FOR THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION TO BECOME MORE COMMERCIALIZED. BETWEEN NOW AND-AND 20– UH, 2025–>>MM-HMM.>>UM, THAT’S SEVEN YEARS FROM NOW– THERE’S–>>YEAH.>>BETWEEN NOW AND THEN, THERE’S A LOT THAT’S GONNA CHANGE. AND IT’S NOT JUST THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION THAT COULD BE MORE COMMERCIALIZED. IT WOULD BE OTHER PRIVATE HABITAT-HABITATS IN LOW EARTH ORBIT THAT WOULD BE ADDING TO THAT, UM, MARKETPLACE IN LOW EARTH ORBIT. SO, UM, THERE’S A LOT OF REALLY EXCITING THINGS HAPPENING. WHAT WE WANNA MAKE SURE WE DO, THOUGH– AND MARK AND I HAVE TALKED ABOUT THIS– WE WANNA MAKE SURE THAT WE’RE PLANNING TODAY–>>MM-HMM.>>–FOR A FUTURE WHERE WE HAVE NO GAPS IN LOW EARTH ORBIT. WE-WE DON’T WANNA HAVE A DAY WHEN AMERICAN ASTRONAUTS ARE NOT THERE. KIDS THAT ARE GRADUATING FROM HIGH SCHOOL TODAY HAVE LIVED THEIR ENTIRE LIVES WITH A HUMAN LIVING AND WORKING IN SPACE. WE WANNA MAKE SURE THAT THAT HAPPENS, YOU KNOW, 18 YEARS FROM NOW, AND THEN 18 YEARS FROM THEN, SO THERE’S NO GAP. UM, AND SO THAT’S REALLY WHAT WE’RE WORKING TO ACHIEVE NOW.>>THAT’S RIGHT. AND IT’S-IT’S ALREADY UNDER WORK. MARK, I KNOW JUST RECENTLY, THE NASA RESEARCH ANNOUNCEMENT CAME OUT. WE SELECTED COMPANIES TO ACTUALLY TAKE A LOOK SPECIFICALLY AT THIS. WHAT CAN WE DO, RIGHT? SO-SO WHAT’S GOING ON THERE?>>YEAH, EXACTLY. THAT’S A G– A GREAT LEAD-IN, ‘CAUSE WE’RE– YOU KNOW, WE NASA, WE’RE SMART PEOPLE. WE’VE BEEN PARTNERING WITH PEOPLE FOR OUR WHOLE– OUR WHOLE HISTORY. SO NOW WE’RE ASKING PEOPLE THAT ARE ON THE CUTTING EDGE OF COMMERCIALIZING SPACE. AND SOME ARE SUPPLIERS. SOME ARE CREATING DEMAND SIDE. SO WE ASK THEM, “WHAT WOULD YOU DO?”>>RIGHT.>>”WHAT-WHAT DO YOU THINK “MAKES SENSE, AS A COMPANY, “THAT WOULD ENABLE YOU?” AND “WHAT DO YOU THINK “NASA’S DOING THAT’S “STOPPING YOU?”>>MM-HMM.>>SO LET’S TALK ABOUT BOTH OF THOSE, AND WHAT ARE THE THINGS WE CAN DO AS A– AS AN AGENCY TO HELP THAT? ‘CAUSE WE– ‘CAUSE AS JIM SAID, THAT’S THE GOAL. WE’RE TRYING TO BE– UH, AND I LIKE THE PHRASE, “ONE OF MANY CUSTOMERS.” SO HOW DOES THAT HAPPEN? THAT MEANS THESE OTHER FOLKS NEED TO BE CUSTOMERS. THESE OTHER FOLKS NEED TO HAVE A REASON TO BE IN SPACE. AND SO, HOW DO WE ENABLE THAT? SO WE’RE REALLY CASTING A WIDE NET, ASKING PEOPLE WHO HAVE– NOT JUST PEOPLE WHO ARE-ARE THINKING, BUT PEOPLE WHO HAVE ACTUALLY DONE COMMERCIAL IDEAS IN SPACE AND SAY, “OKAY, HOW WOULD IT WORK?”>>THAT’S RIGHT.>>SO WE CAN PUT TOGETHER A REAL PLAN. I THINK THAT’S THE KEY.>>YEAH, WORK, AND THEN ALSO, BE SUSTAINABLE.>>EXACTLY.>>SOMETHING-SOMETHING THAT’S A BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY, SOMETHING THAT YOU WANT PEOPLE TO COME AND PARTICIPATE IN.>>EXACTLY.>>YOU KNOW, IT’S-IT’S IN A– IT’S SOMETHING THAT COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIES CAN PROFIT FROM.>>YEAH.>>UM–>>I THINK WE SEE WHAT– IF I– IF I COULD JUST ADD TO THAT?>>YEAH, SURE.>>I THINK WE’RE SEEING, ON STATION, WITH THE– WITH THE NATIONAL LAB AND OTHER THINGS, WHERE IT’S NOT– IT’S NOT REAL, REAL SIMPLE TO START A COMPANY IN SPACE, RIGHT? IT’S NOT REAL, REAL SIMPLE TO START CREATING A PRODUCT IN SPACE. IT TAKES, UH, SOME HELP FROM NASA, JUST TO GET UP THERE. IT TAKES PEOPLE WITH EXPERTISE ABOUT WHAT HAPPENS, UH, IN SPACE. AND THEN IT TAKES TRI-TRIAL AND ERROR. SO THE NATIONAL LAB IS A GREAT EXAMPLE, WHERE WE TAKE PEOPLE WHO ARE INTERESTED, WHO AREN’T OUR NORMAL SPACE FOLKS THAT HAVE BEEN IN SPACE, ALL SORTS OF DIFFERENT COMPANIES. UM, AND THEN WE, UH, GIVE THEM– TALK ABOUT THE OPPORTUNITIES. WE TIE THEM WITH PEOPLE WHO HAVE CAPABILITIES. WE LINK ‘EM WITH PEOPLE WHO HAVE MONEY, SAY, “HEY, THESE PEOPLE MIGHT BE “INTERESTED, TOO.”>>YEAH.>>’CAUSE IT’S SEEDING THAT THAT’S REALLY, REALLY IMPORTANT. AND I THINK WHAT’LL– THE KEY WAS– IF O– WHEN ONE OF THOSE TAKES OFF, WHERE SOMEBODY REALLY STARTS MAKING MONEY–>>MM-HMM.>>–UH, IN SPACE, UH, THAT’LL BE GREAT FOR US. WE JUST NEED TO GET OUT OF THE WAY. ‘CAUSE THEY’RE-THEY’RE GONNA TO BE DOING THEIR THING. AND THAT’S REALLY GONNA HELP US REDUCE OUR FIXED COSTS. ‘CAUSE THEY’LL BE BUYING SERVICES, TOO.>>FOR SURE.>>IT’S GOING TO BE GOOD.>>AND THEN WHEN THAT HAPPENS, THEN AS MARK SAID, W-WE WILL BE– NASA WILL BE ONE CUSTOMER OF MANY CUSTOMERS, WHICH DRIVES DOWN OUR PRICE. BUT WE WILL ALSO HAVE A LOT OF PROVIDERS. WHEN I SAY A LOT OF PROVIDERS, WE’LL HAVE A LOT OF LAUNCH PROVIDERS. WE’LL HAVE A LOT OF, POTENTIALLY, COMMERCIAL SPACE STATIONS THAT WE CAN TAKE OUR NASA ASTRONAUTS TO ON COMMERCIAL LAUNCH, UM, PROVIDERS. UM, AND THEN SO IF YOU HAVE MULTIPLE PROVIDERS, AND WE ARE ONE OF MANY CUSTOMERS, THEN, UM, THEY’RE COMPETING ON INNOVATION. THEY’RE TRYING TO DO MORE, UH, IN ORDER TO BECOME A BIGGER, YOU KNOW– THEY WANT US TO BE AN-AN EVEN BIGGER CUSTOMER. SO THEY’RE GONNA COMPETE ON INNOVATION. THEY’RE GONNA COMPETE ON COSTS. THAT MEANS NASA CAN DO MORE THAN IT’S EVER DONE BEFORE. IT ALSO MEANS THAT WE’RE GONNA BE ABLE TO TAKE OUR RESOURCES FROM THE TAXPAYER AND DO THINGS FOR WHICH THERE IS NO COMMERCIAL MARKETPLACE. WE CAN FLY TO THE MOON ON SLS AND ORION, WHICH RIGHT NOW, THERE ISN’T A COMMERCIAL CAPABILITY THERE.>>RIGHT.>>AND OF COURSE, WE CAN BUILD THE GATEWAY. AND THE FIRST GATEWAY IS ABOUT MORE ACCESS TO MORE PARTS OF THE MOON THAN EVER BEFORE. AND THE SECOND GATEWAY IS A DEEP SPACE TRANSPORT THAT TAKES US TO MARS. SO ALL OF THOSE CAPABILITIES ARE DEPENDENT ON US COMMERCIALIZING LOW EARTH ORBIT. WE DON’T WANNA LOSE LOW EARTH ORBIT. WE JUST WANT IT TO BE COMMERCIALIZED. UM, AND THEN WE CAN TAKE OUR RESOURCES AND DO THINGS WHERE THERE IS NO COMMERCIAL MARKET YET.>>YEAH. WE DON’T WANT TO LOSE IT. IT GOES BACK TO YOUR POINT OF SAYING CONTINUING ACCESS, RIGHT? WE STILL WANT TO BE A PART OF THAT– NASA IS ONE OF MANY CUSTOMERS– BUT ALSO, THE ACCESS, YOU KNOW, FOR-FOR ASTRONAUTS, TOO. AND EVEN FOR-FOR PRIVATE COMPANIES, TO-TO SEND PEOPLE UP THERE. AND THAT’S-THAT’S ACTUALLY A MONEY-MAKING ENDEAVOR AS WELL. BUT THE– YOU KNOW, WHILE WE’RE– WHILE WE’RE ALSO DOING THAT, THERE’S THIS-THIS ECONOMY DOWN THERE, SO WE CAN FOCUS ON, LIKE YOU’RE SAYING, EXPLORATION. AND THIS GATEWAY THING, I DON’T THINK IT’S SOMETHING WE’VE TOUCHED ON SO MUCH ON THIS SHOW. SO-SO WE’VE– WHAT IS GATEWAY? WHAT IS THIS THING?>>SO THE IDEA IS, UM, SPACE POLICY DIRECTIVE ONE SAYS WE’RE GOING TO THE MOON.>>YEAH.>>IT ALSO SAYS THAT WE’RE GONNA GO SUSTAINABLY.>>HMM.>>IN OTHER WORDS, UM, WE’RE NOT GONNA DO FLAGS AND FOOTPRINTS AGAIN. BUT THIS TIME, WHEN WE GO TO THE MOON, WE’RE GOING TO STAY.>>MM-HMM.>>SO ONE OF THE WAYS TO MAKE SURE THAT WE DON’T COME HOME IS TO PUT A SPACE STATION AROUND THE MOON FOR A VERY LONG PERIOD OF TIME. AND WE’RE– YOU KNOW, IT’S GONNA HAVE SOLAR-ELECTRIC PROPULSION, WHICH MEANS, UH, VERY HIGH SPECIFIC IMPULSE. IN OTHER WORDS, UH, THE, UH– THE FUEL ECONOMY WILL BE VERY, VERY HIGH.>>NICE.>>UH, SO IT CAN STAY THERE FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME. AND IT’S IN WHAT’S CALLED A NEAR RECTILINE– NEAR RECTILINEAR HALO ORBIT, WHICH MEANS IT’S KIND OF BALANCED BETWEEN EARTH OR– YOU KNOW, EARTH AND THE MOON ARE– YOU KNOW, THE GRAVITY WELLS OF THE TWO PLANETARY BODIES. SO ALL OF THAT BEING SAID, IT CAN BE THERE FOR A LONG, LONG TIME. UM, AND THEN WHAT WE NEED IS WE NEED REUSABILITY. WE-WE KNOW WHAT HAPPENS WITH REUSABLE LAUNCH. THE COSTS GO DOWN, ACCESS GOES UP. WE NEED, YOU KNOW, TUGS BETWEEN EARTH ORBIT AND LUNAR ORBIT TO BE REUSABLE. WE NEED LANDERS THAT GO FROM THAT GATEWAY, THAT SPACE STATION, IN ORBIT AROUND THE MOON– WE NEED LANDERS TO BE REUSABLE. ALL OF THAT, UM, REUSABILITY IS WHAT MAKES EVERYTHING SUSTAINABLE. THE OTHER THING THAT’S IMPORTANT IS, WHEN WE GO TO THE MOON, WE WANNA HAVE ACCESS TO EVERY PART OF THE MOON, NOT JUST THE EQUATORIAL REGIONS. UM, FROM 1969, WHEN WE FIRST LANDED ON THE MOON, ALL THE WAY UP UNTIL 2008, 39 YEARS, WE BELIEVED THAT THE MOON WAS BONE DRY. AND IN 2008, AND THEN MORE IN 2009, WE DISCOVERED THAT THERE’S HUNDREDS OF BILLIONS OF TONS OF WATER ICE ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. WATER ICE REPRESENTS, YOU KNOW, WATER TO DRINK, OF COURSE. BUT IT ALSO REPRESENTS AIR TO BREATHE. AND IT REPRESENTS ROCKET FUEL– HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN, ULTIMATELY– WHEN SEPARATED INTO ITS COMPONENT PARTS AND PUT INTO CRYOGENIC FORM, THAT’S-THAT’S ROCKET FUEL. NOW, UM, SPACE POLICY DIRECTIVE ONE, SIGNED BY THE PRESIDENT, ACTUALLY TALKS ABOUT UTILIZING THE RESOURCES OF THE MOON. SO AGAIN, WE WANNA GO SUSTAINABLY. WE WANNA NOT DO FLAGS AND FOOTPRINTS. WE WANNA BE THERE TO STAY.>>MM-HMM.>>WE WANT TO UTILIZE THE RESOURCES OF-OF THE MOON, NAMELY, WATER ICE, FOR NOW.>>MM-HMM.>>BUT IT’S ALSO TRUE– AND WE DON’T KNOW, BUT IT’S TRUE THAT THERE COULD BE, YOU KNOW, PLATINUM GROUP METALS ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. RARE– YOU KNOW, ON EARTH, WE CALL THEM RARE EARTH METALS. BUT THEY’RE REALLY ASTEROID IMPACTS FROM BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO. WELL, THE MOON HAS THE SAME– THE SAME, YOU KNOW, PATH THAT THE MOON HAS THROUGH THE SOLAR SYSTEM.>>YEAH.>>WHICH-WHICH MEANS THAT IT PROBABLY IMPACTED THE SAME ASTEROID THAT THE EARTH HAS IMPACTED, WHICH MEANS THERE COULD BE, UM, A-A LOT. THERE COULD BE TRILLIONS OF DOLLARS WORTH OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. WE DON’T KNOW, BUT CERTAINLY, UH, WE SHOULD FIND OUT. AND IT SHOULD BE THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA THAT FINDS OUT, NOT SOMEBODY ELSE.>>RIGHT, YEAH, SO I-I LIKE THIS IDEA OF GATEWAY, BECAUSE BASICALLY, WHAT YOU’RE DESCRIBING IS-IS DEVELOPING NOT ONLY THE SPACE STATION AND ACCESS, BUT ALSO A CAPABILITY, A FLEXIBLE CAPABILITY.>>THAT’S RIGHT.>>SO IT-IT ORBITS THE MOON. BUT BASICALLY, AFTER THAT, YOU CAN KIND OF DECIDE, OH, YOU– IT’S ALL ABOUT EXPLORATION, RIGHT?>>THAT’S RIGHT.>>SO AS SOON AS YOU FIND SOMETHING NEW, YOU CAN– YOU KNOW, OH, LET’S GO CHECK THAT OUT. LET’S GO CHECK THAT OUT.>>EXACTLY.>>IT’S ENABLING THIS ACCESS. IT’S A– IT’S A AWESOME TIME. AND THE THING THAT’S GONNA TAKE US THERE, RIGHT, IS THE SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM, RIGHT?>>THAT’S W– YEAH. AND-AND IN FACT, COMMERCIAL PARTNERS AS WELL.>>OH, OKAY.>>IT’S ALL GONNA BE OPEN ARCHITECTURE. SO, UH, WHETHER PEOPLE ARE DOCKING OR USING THE POWER OF THE GATEWAY, UM, YOU KNOW, WE-WE WANT– WE WANT OUR COMMERCIAL PARTNERS TO BE ABLE TO BUILD THEIR OWN LANDERS. WE WANT OUR-OUR INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS TO BE ABLE TO BUILD THEIR OWN LANDERS. UM, THE-THE GOAL HERE, ULTIMATELY, IS FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TO ASSUME THE LEAD, AND THEN ENABLE OUR COMMERCIAL AND INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS TO DO MORE AND-AND BE THERE FOR A VERY LONG PERIOD OF TIME.>>MM-HMM.>>SO THAT WE CAN LEARN, SCIENTIFICALLY, MORE ABOUT THE MOON THAN WE’VE EVER KNOWN BEFORE. LIKE I SAID, WE FIRST DISCOVERED WATER ICE IN 2008. UM, WHAT ELSE DO WE NOT KNOW ABOUT THE SURFACE OF THE MOON? AND I’M WILLING TO BET THERE IS A LOT WE DON’T KNOW.>>THAT’S RIGHT.>>UH, AND THEN ULTIMATELY, AGAIN, RETIRING THE RISK ON A LOT OF THESE CAPABILITIES AND TECHNOLOGIES, SO THAT THAT GATEWAY CAN BE– IN THE LONG RUN, THE SECOND GATEWAY– CAN BE OUR DEEP SPACE TRANSPORT TO-TO GET US TO MARS. AND WE WANT THIS ENTIRE ARCHITECTURE TO BE REPLICABLE. LIKE, WE WANNA BE ABLE TO TAKE IT TO MARS.>>MM-HMM.>>AND, UH, THAT’S-THAT’S THE OBJECTIVE. NOW, I KNOW, YOU KNOW, MARS AND-AND THE MOON ARE NOT THE SAME. MARS HAS AN ATMOSPHERE WHICH MAKES ENTRY, DESCENT, AND LANDING A LITTLE BIT MORE CHALLENGING. UM, BUT AT THE SAME TIME, UH, AS MUCH OF IT THAT WE CAN REPLICATE, WE WANNA BE ABLE TO-TO REPLICATE.>>FOR SURE. ANOTHER THEME YOU’VE BEEN TOUCHING ON IS-IS THIS IDEA OF LEADERSHIP, THE IDEA OF-OF AMERICANS, UH, LEADING THIS-THIS EFFORT. SO WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT TO THIS– TO THIS DIRECTIVE?>>SO A LOT OF PEOPLE DON’T REALIZE THE SOFT POWER CAPABILITY OF NASA. THIS IS REALLY, UM– YOU KNOW, EARLIER YOU ASKED, “WHAT DO YOU DO AS “THE NASA ADMINISTRATOR?” WELL, UM, REALLY, ABOUT A MONTH AGO, I WAS AT THE FARNBOROUGH AIR SHOW IN ENGLAND, MEETING WITH THE HEADS OF SPACE AGENCIES FROM AROUND THE WORLD. UM, AND THE-THE IDEA– YOU KNOW, I WAS GOING TO SELL THIS NEW SPACE POLICY DIRECTIVE, THAT WE’RE GOING TO THE MOON, AND WE’RE GONNA DO A SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE AT THE MOON, AND WE WANT OUR COMMERCIAL AND INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS TO JOIN US IN THIS EFFORT. UH, I THOUGHT I WAS GONNA HAVE TO DO A HARD SALES PITCH. AND THE REALITY IS, UH, THEY’RE READY TO GO. IT WAS REALLY EASY. THEY’RE SAYING TO ME, UH, “TELL US WHAT YOU NEED US “TO DO, AND WE’LL GO SELL “OUR GOVERNMENTS, BECAUSE “WE’RE READY.” THEY’VE– A LOT OF COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD HAVE BEEN WAITING TO GO TO THE MOON. UM, AND THEY JUST NEEDED, YOU KNOW, THE LEADER. AND THAT’S WHO WE ARE. WE LEAD. YOU KNOW, THE OTHER THING THAT I THINK IS IMPORTANT ABOUT NASA– WHEN RELATIONSHIPS BREAK DOWN AROUND THE WORLD– UM, AND OF COURSE, YOU CAN PROBABLY TELL THAT WE’VE HAD A STRAINED RELATIONSHIP RECENTLY WITH RUSSIA. WE’RE ABLE TO CONTINUE TO COOPERATE ON SPACE-RELATED ACTIVITIES, CIVIL SPACE-RELATED ACTIVITIES, WHICH HAS ENABLED US TO DO MORE. IT’S ENABLED THEM TO DO MORE. AND THAT’S REALLY AN– A LINE OF COMMUNICATION, UM, THAT WOULD NOT BE AVAILABLE WITHOUT NASA. SO NASA REPRESENTS, UH, AN AMAZING OPPORTUNITY FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TO LEAD. IT REPRESENTS A SOFT POWER CAPABILITY, AND, UM, AND REALLY, AN-AN OPEN CHANNEL OF COMMUNICATION WHEN OTHER CHANNELS FAIL.>>HMM.>>SO–>>SO I KNOW IT’S, UH– KIND OF ALONG THESE LINES OF AMERICAN LEADERSHIP. AND-AND IT’S– IT GOES BACK TO THIS IDEA OF COOPERATION, RIGHT? IT’S SOMETHING THAT WE’RE DOING RIGHT NOW. AND MARK, YOU’RE VERY FAMILIAR WITH IT, RIGHT? YOU’VE WORKED IN THE SPACE STATION PROGRAM FOR A LONG TIME. YOU, YOURSELF, WERE A LEADER TO-TO ACTUALLY WORK WITH RUSSIA AND MAKE THINGS HAPPEN. SO DESCRIBE HOW– IT’S-IT’S CALLED AN INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. IT’S CALLED THAT FOR A REASON. IT’S BECAUSE IT’S ALL OF THESE NATIONS, COMING TOGETHER TO MAKE THIS THING, THIS SINGLE IDEA, POSSIBLE. SO HOW DOES THAT– HOW DOES THAT WORK, THIS INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION?>>I THINK IT’S A GREAT LEAD-IN OR TIE TO YOUR PREVIOUS QUESTION, TOO. BECAUSE REALLY, IT WAS NASA, UNITED STATES, THAT SAID, “HEY, WE WANNA DO “THIS SPACE STATION.”>>HMM.>>AND “HEY, WE WANNA DO THIS “WITH OTHER FOLKS.” AND THEN THEY CAME ALONGSIDE AND DID IT WITH US.>>YEAH.>>BUT TO DO THAT, SO TO LEAD, YOU KNOW, TO BE A GOOD LEADER, ONE, YOU HAVE TO HAVE A VISION. BUT TWO, YOU ALSO HAVE TO LISTEN, RIGHT? YOU HAVE TO UNDERSTAND YOUR PARTNER’S COMMON GOALS. AND SO UNIFYING AROUND COMMON GOALS IS REALLY IMPORTANT. AND THAT WAS A LOT OF WHAT WE DID WITH THE RUSSIANS IN THE EARLY STAGE, YOU KNOW. YOU-YOU SET A POLICY, BUT THEN YOU SIT DOWN ACROSS THE TABLE AND TALK ABOUT WHAT DRIVES THEM, RIGHT, WHAT’S LIKELY TO ENABLE SUPPORT WITHIN THEIR COUNTRY FOR THEM TO GET THE FUNDING TO DO THE THINGS THAT-THAT THEY NEED TO DO. AND SO A LOT OF THAT IS YOU-YOU FIND OUT THAT’S WHAT MAKES THESE KIND OF PARTNERSHIPS WORK. UM, SO STATION’S THE– A-A BIG EXAMPLE OF THAT– NOT JUST THE RUSSIANS, BUT OF COURSE, EUROPEANS, THE JAPANESE, THE CANADIANS. UM, AND ALL OF THEM HAVE THEIR OWN THING, RIGHT? THEY HAVE THEIR OWN THING THAT THEY’RE INTERESTED IN, THEIR OWN THING THAT DRIVES THEM. AND SO YOU’RE TRYING TO FIND THE COMMON– THAT STILL MEETS, UH, NASA’S AND THE UNITED STATES’S GOALS. SO AS JIM SAID, WE’RE TAKIN’ THAT EXPERIENCE, THEN, OUT TO THE MOON. ‘CAUSE ORION HAS A EUROPEAN COMPONENT, RIGHT? THE EUROPEAN SERVICE MODULE IS A BIG PIECE OF ORION.>>RIGHT.>>IT’S– AND THAT’S A STRATEGIC DECISION TO GO PARTNER WITH THEM TO MAKE THAT PIECE OF ORION. SO WE– IT’S THE BEGINNING OF US LEADING NOW INTO THE NEXT PHASE. AND, UM, JIM SAID ALSO, FOR THE GATEWAY, THERE’LL BE INTERNATIONAL AND COMMERCIAL PARTNERS AS PART OF THAT, TOO. SO IT’S TAKIN’ THAT EXPERIENCE– I THINK WE’RE LEARNIN’ BETTER HOW TO PARTNER WITH COMMERCIAL FOLKS, ‘CAUSE THEY HAVE THEIR OWN THINGS THAT DRIVE THEM, RIGHT? AND-AND HOW DO YOU FIND COMMON-COMMON GOALS THAT-THAT HELP THEM, HELP THEIR COMPANY, UH, BUT STILL LINE UP WITH WHAT WE WANT, UH, AS A NATION? SO IT’S-IT’S-IT’S A SKILL THAT NOT A LOT OF PEOPLE HAVE. IT TAKES TIME TO LEARN HOW TO DO IT, BUT IT’S, UM, IT’S ALWAYS EXCITING, AND IT’S A BIG PART, I THINK, AS WHAT’S GONNA MAKE US SUSTAINABLE, AS JIM SAID, IN THE FUTURE.>>AND ONE OF THE CHALLENGES THAT YOU-YOU KIND OF TOUCHED ON IS COMMERCIAL PARTNERS ARE-ARE ONE TYPE OF PARTNERSHIP. INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS ARE ANOTHER TYPE OF PARTNERSHIP. AND WE WANT TO ENABLE COMMERCIAL TO JOIN US AS WE DEVELOP OUR NEXT GENERATION OF CAPABILITIES. AND THEY WANT TO JOIN US. THE-THE CHALLENGE IS HOW-HOW DO YOU– IF-IF YOU’RE DEVELOPING THIS ARCHITECTURE AND YOU WANT COMMERCIAL PARTNERSHIPS IN IT, HOW DO YOU THEN INCLUDE INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS AS WELL? AND SO THE IDEA WOULD BE, WELL, WE BRING IN OUR COMMERCIAL PARTNERS, THEY BRING IN THEIR COMMERCIAL PARTNERS, AND THEN WE PARTNER AT THE AGENCY LEVEL WITH ALL OF OUR COMMERCIAL PARTNERS KIND OF IN-IN-IN THE MIX. WELL, THERE ARE SOME COUNTRIES THAT DON’T HAVE COMMERCIAL PARTNERS. THEY DON’T HAVE COMMERCIAL SPACE CAPABILITIES. AND IN FACT, I’VE MET WITH, UH, ONE COUNTRY IN PARTICULAR WHO, YOU KNOW, TOLD ME THAT-THAT THEY’RE NOT INTERESTED IN COMMERCIAL, AND-AND THAT, YOU KNOW, THEY’RE NOT REAL THRILLED ABOUT OUR COMMERCIALIZATION OF SPACE. AND I SAID, “WELL, TELL ME, “WHY IS THAT? “WE CAN DO MORE NOW “THAN WE’VE EVER BEEN ABLE TO “DO BEFORE. “WHY IS THAT?” AND THIS-THIS PARTICULAR PERSON SAID, “WELL, WE DON’T “HAVE PRIVATE CAPITAL “IN OUR COUNTRY,” UM, WHICH KIND OF WAS EYE-OPENING FOR ME. “WE DON’T– WE DON’T HAVE “PRIVATE CAPITAL.” UM, SO TO THE EXTENT WE PARTNER WITH SOME COUNTRIES THAT HAVE A DIFFERENT WAY OF DOING GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS, UH, YOU KNOW, WE HAVE TO– WE HAVE TO THINK CAREFULLY ABOUT, UM, HOW TO– HOW TO INCLUDE THEM IN AN ERA WHEN WE WANT COMMERCIALIZATION, AND THEY’RE-THEY’RE NOT THERE YET. UM, AND IN SOME OF THESE CASES– AND I’VE TALKED TO SOME COUNTRIES– THEY’RE WORKING REALLY HARD TO DEVELOP A COMMERCIAL CAPABILITY THAT DOESN’T YET EXIST, WHICH IS ALSO– THAT’S GOOD TO SEE. THAT’S-THAT’S AMERICAN LEADERSHIP. THAT’S NASA LEADERSHIP, UM, THAT’S GONNA ENABLE US AS HUMANITY TO DO MORE THAN WE’VE EVER DONE BEFORE.>>THAT’S WONDERFUL. I FEEL LIKE THERE’S THIS SENSE OF AMERICAN INSPIRATION, AS WELL, BECAUSE WE’VE BEEN WORKIN’ WITH-WITH, UH, COMPANIES NOW– OR-OR NATIONS– FOR THE– WITH THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION FOR ALMOST TWO DECADES NOW, RIGHT? SO-SO IT’S-IT’S THIS CONSTANT COOPERATION THAT KIND OF GETS THE WHEELS TURNIN’ AND-AND-AND MAKES THINGS WORK. BUT ARE YOU SEEING A CHANGE IN THE LANDSCAPE? ARE YOU SEEING THAT IT’S GROWING, THAT MORE COMPANIES, MORE INDUSTRY ARE WANTING TO TAKE PART IN, UH, SPACE EXPLORATION AND EVEN COMMERCIAL SPACE?>>MARK, YOU WANNA TAKE THAT?>>YEAH, YEAH. I THINK YOU CAN SEE IT IN JUST THE VARIATION OF THE COMPANIES THAT ARE WORKING ON PAYLOADS AND OTHER THINGS ON SPACE STATION, COMPANIES THAT HAVE GROWN UP BASICALLY REALLY, UH, PROVIDING A CAPABILITY NOBODY THOUGHT OF BEFORE, LIKE AN AIRLOCK TO THEN USE TO FLY, UH, SMALL SATELLITES– CUBESATS–RIGHT? SOMETHING THAT WE DIDN’T THINK ABOUT A LOT, AND NOW THE STATION, I THINK, IS THE NUMBER ONE PLATFORM FOR LAUNCHING THESE SATELLITES INTO SPACE. SO THINGS WE HADN’T THOUGHT OF BEFORE, COMPANIES ARE COMING UP WITH THAT. AND SO THE KEY IS, UH, AS WE’VE TALKED, JUST PROVIDING A FRAMEWORK WHERE YOU CAN GET THAT INNOVATION, RIGHT? GETTING ENOUGH FRAMEWORK THAT WE MAKE SURE, HEY, STATION’S GONNA BE OKAY, BUT THEN GIVING ENOUGH ROOM SO THAT THEY CAN INNOVATE AND FIND NICHES THAT WE WOULD NEVER HAVE THOUGHT OF BEFORE. SO WE’RE SEEING THAT A LOT ON SPACE STATION.>>ALMOST A DIFFERENT WAY OF DOING BUSINESS.>>EXACTLY.>>YEAH.>>BUT THERE’S ALSO– EVEN BEYOND NASA, WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT, UM, WHAT’S HAPPENING WITH COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURES, WHERE IT USED TO BE IN ORDER TO DO OVER THE HORIZON COMMUNICATION, YOU HAD TO LAUNCH TO GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT. AND THE-THE SATELLITES WERE $500 MILLION, AND THEY WERE, YOU KNOW, THE SIZE OF-OF THIS TABLE HERE. AND NOW WE’RE SEEING CONSTELLATIONS OF THOUSANDS OF SATELLITES BEING LAUNCHED INTO LOW EARTH ORBIT, UM, THAT ARE THE SIZE OF A-A DISHWASHER. UH, AND THAT’S GONNA ENABLE LOW LATENCY, HIGH THROUGHPUT COMMUNICATIONS. IN OTHER WORDS, UM, IT WILL MEET THE SAME STANDARD AS CELL TOWER COMMUNICATIONS. YOUR-YOUR CELL PHONE WILL BE ABLE TO WORK WHEREVER YOU ARE IN THE WORLD. YOU COULD BE IN-IN RURAL ALASKA OR YOU COULD BE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN, AND YOUR CELL PHONE WILL WORK, UH, FROM ANY OF THOSE LOCATIONS, WHICH WILL CONNECT– YOU KNOW, THERE’S STILL TWO-THIRDS OF THE WORLD THAT’S NOT CONNECTED. UM, WELL, AT THAT POINT, ANYBODY WHO HAS A CELL PHONE IS NOW CONNECTED TO THE REST OF THE WORLD. SO THOSE CAPABILITIES ARE BEING LAUNCHED, AND THERE’S HALF A DOZEN DIFFERENT COMPANIES THAT ARE LAUNCHING THOSE TYPES OF CONSTELLATIONS INTO SPACE. UH, AND EACH ONE OF THOSE COMPANIES WILL BE ABLE TO BENEFIT NASA, UM, WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT THE-THE COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURE THAT WE NEED IN SPACE. AND ULTIMATELY, THE TYPE OF COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURE THAT WE’RE GONNA NEED AROUND THE MOON, AND MAYBE EVEN AT MARS. SO THERE’S A LOT OF, UM, A LOT OF COMMERCIAL CAPABILITY BEING DEVELOPED RIGHT NOW THAT’S GONNA BE TREMENDOUSLY VALUABLE, UM, FOR-FOR NASA.>>RIGHT– CAPABILITY, OPPORTUNITY, EVERYTHING, REALLY. UH, I KNOW– SOMETHING ELSE NEW IS WE’RE IN THIS TIME NOW WHERE-WHERE THE ADMINISTRATION IS SUGGESTING, UM, A SPACE FORCE, RIGHT?>>YEAH.>>I ACTUALLY HAD MY MOM TEXT ME AND SAY, “HOW DOES THIS “AFFECT YOU? “DOES THAT MEAN NASA’S “GOING AWAY?” I FEEL LIKE THERE’S-THERE’S SORT OF A DISCONNECT GOING ON HERE, SO HOW-HOW-HOW DO YOU DESCRIBE TO THOSE WHO ARE CONFUSED, UH, SPACE FORCE AND NASA?>>GREAT QUESTION. NASA DOES EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY AND SCIENCE. WE DO NOT DO NATIONAL SECURITY AND DEFENSE. UH, OF COURSE, WE-WE DO HAVE AN ABILITY TO DO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND SOFT POWER LEADERSHIP, THOSE KIND OF THINGS, BUT-BUT WE DON’T GET INVOLVED IN THE HARD POWER ACTIVITIES OF THE COUNTRY, INTENTIONALLY. YOU GO BACK TO 1958, THE CREATION OF NASA. EISENHOWER WAS ABSOLUTELY ADAMANT THAT NASA NOT BE PART OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY APPARATUS.>>MM-HMM.>>SO THAT’S-THAT’S A GOOD THING FOR OUR AGENCY. UM, AT THE SAME TIME, UH, THE SPACE FORCE– WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT WHAT IT IS, UM, IT’S-IT’S REALLY, UH– YOU LOOK AT AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND. THEY’RE RESPONSIBLE FOR ORGANIZING AND TRAINING A CADRE OF PROFESSIONALS THAT CAN DO SPACE SECURITY ACTIVITIES, AND THEN THE SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER, WHICH IS ANOTHER AIR FORCE COMMAND, UM, IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ACQUIRING ASSETS FOR SPACE DEFENSE, SPACE SECURITY. SO YOU TAKE THOSE-THOSE COMPONENTS, AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND AND THE SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER, AND YOU TAKE THEM OUT OF THE AIR FORCE AND YOU-YOU PUT THEM UNDER A NEW SECRETARY, A SECRETARY OF THE SPACE FORCE, AND YOU HAVE A REPRE– HAVE THEM REPRESENTED ON THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF, AND THAT, IN ESSENCE, BECOMES YOUR ORGANIZE, TRAIN AND EQUIP FUNCTION, WHICH IS ALL THAT A MILITARY SERVICE IS. A MILITARY SERVICES IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ORGANIZING, TRAINING AND EQUIPPING A CADRE OF PROFESSIONALS TO FIGHT IN A CERTAIN DOMAIN. SO ALL OF THAT COULD BE– IN FACT, YOU KNOW, THE-THE PLAN IS THAT THAT’S– YOU KNOW, IT WOULD– IT WOULD– IT WOULD COME, REALLY, OUT OF THE AIR FORCE. NOW, THE BENEFIT OF CREATING A SEPARATE FORCE IS THEN IT HAS A LINE ITEM THAT IS EQUAL TO THAT OF THE AIR FORCE, AND THE NAVY, AND THE ARMY, AND THE MARINE CORPS, UM, AND IT DOESN’T HAVE TO COMPETE AGAINST THE AIR DOMAIN FOR RESOURCES. DON’T GET ME WRONG– IT WILL HAVE TO STILL COMPETE BECAUSE AT THE END OF THE DAY, THE-THE-THE BUDGET IS ONLY SO BIG. BUT IT WILL HAVE ITS– IT WILL HAVE THE ABILITY TO COMPETE ON THE SAME LEVEL AS-AS THE-THE AIR FORCE, THE NAVY, AND THE ARMY. SO ALL OF THAT, I THINK, UM, IS-IS REALLY WHAT THE SPACE FORCE IS ALL ABOUT. UM, IF YOU LISTEN TO WHAT THE VICE PRESIDENT ANNOUNCED A NUMBER OF WEEKS AGO, HE ALSO SAID THAT THEY WANNA CREATE A NEW COMBATANT COMMAND. SO THE MILITARY SERVICE ORGANIZES, TRAINS AND EQUIPS THE CADRE OF-OF PROFESSIONALS. BUT ULTIMATELY, WAR FIGHTING IS DONE BY WHAT’S CALLED A-A COMBATANT COMMAND. IN THIS CASE, IT WOULD BE A FUNCTIONAL COMBATANT COMMAND. PEOPLE ARE REALLY FAMILIAR WITH WHAT A-A GEOGRAPHIC COMBATANT COMMAND IS. GEOGRAPHIC MEANING, LIKE, WHERE IN THE WORLD IS IT. SO CENTCOM IS-IS IN THE MIDDLE EAST. PEOPLE ARE FAMILIAR WITH CENTCOM, OR EUROPEAN COMMAND, AFRICAN COMMAND. UH, THERE’S, UH, THE PACIFIC COMMAND. ALL OF THESE DIFFERENT, UH, GEOGRAPHIC COMBATANT COMMANDS. IN THIS CASE, IT WOULD BE A FUNCTIONAL COMBATANT COMMAND RESPONSIBLE FOR FIGHTING AND WINNING WARS IN SPACE. THE IDEA BEING, YOU KNOW, NASA AND OUR COMMERCIAL PARTNERS AND OTHER COMMERCIAL ENTITIES– YOU KNOW, WE HAVE HUNDREDS OF BILLIONS OF DOLLARS IN SPACE, HUNDREDS OF BILLIONS. PLUS, WE HAVE OUR ASTRONAUTS IN SPACE. AND SO THEY GENERALLY– WE NEED SECURITY. AND WHAT WE HAVE TO DO IS WE HAVE TO MAKE SURE THAT ANY POTENTIAL ADVERSARY THAT WE MAY HAVE, ANY POTENTIAL ADVERSARY LOOKS AT, UM, THE SPACE DOMAIN AND THEY SEE THAT THEY AREN’T GONNA GET ANY KIND OF ADVANTAGE BY DESTROYING IT. THEY CANNOT WIN. THERE IS NO ADVANTAGE. AND IN FACT, IF THEY TRIED, IT WOULDN’T WORK. THAT’S THE GOAL. AND IF-IF WE CAN DETER THEM FROM TAKING THE WAR INTO SPACE, THEN THE REST OF US, ALL OF HUMANITY, CAN USE SPACE FOR OUR PEACEFUL PURPOSES, WHICH IS WHAT, ULTIMATELY, WE’VE BEEN DOING NOW SINCE NASA’S CREATION IN 1958. SO, UH, AS A MEMBER OF CONGRESS, WHEN I WAS IN CONGRESS, I VOTED FOR THE SPACE FORCE THREE TIMES, AND IT PASSED THE FULL HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. AND IT PASSED IN A STRONG, BIPARTISAN WAY– IT GOT 344 VOTES. UM, AND-AND OF COURSE IT WENT TO THE SENATE, AND IT DIDN’T PASS THE SENATE. UM, BUT THERE WAS STRONG BIPARTISAN SUPPORT IN THE HOUSE. THE PRESIDENT HAS SEEN THE SAME INTELLIGENCE THAT WE’VE SEEN IN THE CONGRESS, AND HE TOOK IT UP A NOTCH AND SAID, UH, WE-WE GOTTA GET THIS DONE. AND I-I THINK HE’S RIGHT.>>AWESOME. AND IN THE MEANTIME, NASA IS-IS LEADING THIS COOPERATIVE EXPLORATION GOAL, RIGHT?>>THAT’S EXACTLY RIGHT.>>AND SO IT’S PART OF OUR– IT’S PART OF OUR VISION, IS-IS REACH NEW HEIGHTS AND REVEAL THE UNKNOWN. SO AS WE’RE WRAPPING UP, AND TO BE CONSCIOUS OF YOUR TIME, THIS-THIS MEANING, THIS, UH, REVEAL THE UNKNOWN, UH, REACH NEW HEIGHTS– WHAT DOES THIS MEAN TO YOU? AND WE’LL CLOSE WITH THAT.>>SO, IT-IT REALLY– YOU KNOW, WE ARE LEARNING NEW THINGS EVERY DAY. JUST SINCE I’VE BEEN THE NASA ADMINISTRATOR, A LITTLE OVER THREE MONTHS, WE-WE HAVE DISCOVERED IN THESE LITTLE OVER THREE MONTHS THAT MARS HAS A METHANE CYCLE THAT IS PERFECTLY IN TUNE OR KEEPS PERFECTLY WITH THE SEASONS OF MARS, WHICH DOESN’T GUARANTEE THAT THERE’S LIFE, BUT IT INCREASES THE PROBABILITY THAT THERE’S LIFE. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS HAVE BEEN FOUND ON MARS, WHICH, AGAIN, DOESN’T GUARANTEE LIFE, BUT IT INCREASES THE PROBABILITY OF LIFE ON MARS. WE-WE’VE ALSO DISCOVERED NOW, JUST MAYBE A COUPLE WEEKS AGO, THERE’S LIQUID WATER 1.5 KILOMETERS UNDER THE SURFACE OF MARS. NOW, THAT DOESN’T, AGAIN, GUARANTEE LIFE, BUT LIQUID WATER IS A GOOD– YOU-YOU NEED LIQUID WATER FOR LIFE. AND THE FACT THAT IT’S 1.5 KILOMETERS UNDERGROUND MEANS THAT IT’S GONNA BE PROTECTED FROM THE RADIATION ENVIRONMENT OF-OF DEEP SPACE.>>MM-HMM.>>WHICH– ALL OF THIS, YOU KNOW, ADDS UP TO SAY, IS THERE LIFE ON MARS? WE DON’T KNOW. BUT WE NEED TO FIND OUT. AND, UM, TO THE EXTENT THAT SOMEBODY FINDS LIFE ON A WORLD THAT’S NOT OUR OWN, IT NEEDS TO BE THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. SO THAT’S WHAT WE’RE DOING. WE’RE MAKING DISCOVERIES. YOU KNOW, WE’RE GONNA LAUNCH, UH, IN THE NEXT THREE YEARS, THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE. AND WE’RE GONNA SEE BACK TO THE VERY DAWN OF TIME, COSMIC DAWN, THE FIRST LIGHT IN THE UNIVERSE. WE HAVE IDEAS AND MODELS AS TO WHAT THE UNIVERSE LOOKED LIKE WHEN IT WAS FIRST CREATED, BUT WE KNOW THAT THOSE MODELS ARE ALL WRONG. UM, WE NEED TO F– AND SO WE’RE GONNA SEE IT WITH-WITH OUR OWN INSTRUMENTS. UM, SO THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE IS NOT JUST GONNA LOOK ALL THE WAY BACK TO THE VERY FIRST LIGHT IN THE UNIVERSE– IT’S ALSO GONNA SEE BACK ALL THE WAY OUT TO THE EDGE OF THE UNIVERSE, WHERE WE HAVE GALAXIES THAT ARE ACCELERATING, YOU KNOW, YOU KNOW– AS THE UNIVERSE EXPANDS, IT’S EXPANDING AT AN EVER-INCREASING RATE. THE UNIVERSE IS ACCELERATING AWAY FROM A POINT IN THE CENTER, AND, UM, THAT EXPANSION ULTIMATELY IS DEMONSTRATING THAT THERE’S A FORCE AT WORK HERE THAT WE DON’T UNDERSTAND. WE TALK ABOUT THINGS LIKE DARK ENERGY AND DARK MATTER– THINGS THAT WE CAN’T DETECT, WE CAN’T INTERACT WITH, BUT WHAT WE DO KNOW, UM, IS THAT, YOU KNOW, WE SEE ITS GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS. UM, AND-AND WE SEE THESE GALAXIES ACCELERATING AT THE EDGE OF OUR UNIVERSE TO THE SPEED OF LIGHT. SO THEY JUST DISAPPEAR. WELL, WE’RE GONNA BE ABLE TO LOOK AT ALL THOSE. WE’RE GONNA BE ABLE TO SEE INSIDE OF OTHER GALAXIES. UM, WE’RE GONNA BE ABLE TO SEE WITHIN OUR OWN GALAXY– WE’RE GONNA BE ABLE TO SEE PLANETS AROUND OTHER STARS, AND ULTIMATELY MAKE DETERMINATIONS WHETHER OR NOT THOSE PLANETS HAVE A HABITABLE KIND OF ATMOSPHERE. WE’RE GONNA BE ABLE TO DETERMINE WHAT TYPE– IF-IF THESE PLANETS HAVE ATMOSPHERES, WHAT THOSE ATMOSPHERES ARE COMPOSED OF, AND IF THERE COULD BE LIFE THERE. UM, SO, LOOK– NASA’S DOING REALLY AMAZING THINGS. AND, UM, EVERY DAY WE’RE MAKING NEW DISCOVERIES. AND THE-THE MORE CAPABILITY THAT WE’RE PUTTING INTO SPACE EVEN RIGHT NOW, THE– WE’RE GONNA HAVE SO MANY NEW DISCOVERIES, WE’RE NOT GONNA BE ABLE TO COMMUNICATE ALL OF ‘EM FAST ENOUGH, UH, WHICH IS A REALLY GOOD PROBLEM TO HAVE.>>YEAH.>>SO WE’RE LEARNING MORE ABOUT, UM, MORE ABOUT OUR UNIVERSE. ARE WE ALONE IN THE WORLD? AND, UH, THESE ARE– THESE ARE IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR US TO ANSWER.>>WONDERFUL. MARK, ANY-ANY FINAL THOUGHTS BEFORE WE WRAP UP?>>I-I THINK THERE’S SOME OTHER THINGS ABOUT NASA THAT, UH, I KNOW CHANGED MY LIFE. YOU KNOW, I REMEMBER THE FIRST PICTURES FROM MERCURY AND GEMINI ABOUT THE EARTH FROM SPACE, WHICH CHANGED– WHICH NO ONE HAD SEEN BEFORE, SO IT CHANGED OUR WHOLE IDEA. AND THEN AS JIM IN AN EARLIER SPEECH TODAY WAS TALKIN’ ABOUT APOLLO 8, AND I REMEMBER SEEING THE EARTH COME UP OVER THE LIMB OF THE MOON, AND REMEMBERING WHAT THAT FELT LIKE TO SEE OURSELVES IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM FROM A DISTANCE. IT CHANGED EVERYBODY’S IDEA OF KIND OF HOW IMPORTANT THE EARTH WAS. THOSE WERE– REALLY CHANGED OUR WHOLE PERCEPTION. I REMEMBER WHEN, UH, BOB CABANA AND SERGEI KRIKALEV WENT TOGETHER THROUGH THE-THE HATCH OF THE– OF THE NODE THE FIRST TIME ON SPACE STATION, RIGHT, JOINING TOGETHER. SO I THINK THOSE IMAGES, UH, ALONG WITH THE DISCOVERIES, THOSE IMAGES, I THINK, CAN CHANGE THE WAY WE SEE OURSELVES AND THE WORLD AND CAN BE REALLY, REALLY IMPORTANT. AND I THINK WITH THIS NEW EXPLORATION CAMPAIGN, WE’RE GONNA SEE MANY MORE OF THOSE THINGS.>>THAT’S WONDERFUL. THIS IS SUCH AN EXCITING TIME. JIM AND MARK, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR COMING ON THE SHOW AND-AND SHARING THESE WONDERFUL INSIGHTS. IT’S REALLY A PLEASURE TO TALK TO YOU TODAY.>>AWESOME. THANK YOU SO MUCH, GARY. [ MUSIC ]>>SUBSCRIBE FOR MORE SPACE.

7 thoughts on “Houston We Have a Podcast: Reach New Heights and Reveal the Unknown

  1. Need to let the public know how we're going to address the preparations for ET presence/contact confirmation, and/or the necessity to disclose, acknowledge, and reveal evidence to the contrary. 👽

  2. I've always said, From 2020's to the 2030's, It is going to be an awesome time for Discoveries, From the Sciences to low Earth Orbit and far out into space. Fasten your seatbelts, Umans,… Your minds are going to be Blown Away,… Trust Me, I'm an Alien.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *