Daphne Koller: What we’re learning from online education

Daphne Koller: What we’re learning from online education

Translator: Morton Bast
Reviewer: Thu-Huong Ha Like many of you, I’m one of the lucky people. I was born to a family where education was pervasive. I’m a third-generation PhD, a daughter of two academics. In my childhood, I played around in my father’s university lab. So it was taken for granted that I attend some of the best universities, which in turn opened the door to a world of opportunity. Unfortunately, most of the people in the world are not so lucky. In some parts of the world, for example, South Africa, education is just not readily accessible. In South Africa, the educational system was constructed in the days of apartheid for the white minority. And as a consequence, today there is just not enough spots for the many more people who want and deserve a high quality education. That scarcity led to a crisis in January of this year at the University of Johannesburg. There were a handful of positions left open from the standard admissions process, and the night before they were supposed to open that for registration, thousands of people lined up outside the gate in a line a mile long, hoping to be first in line to get one of those positions. When the gates opened, there was a stampede, and 20 people were injured and one woman died. She was a mother who gave her life trying to get her son a chance at a better life. But even in parts of the world like the United States where education is available, it might not be within reach. There has been much discussed in the last few years about the rising cost of health care. What might not be quite as obvious to people is that during that same period the cost of higher education tuition has been increasing at almost twice the rate, for a total of 559 percent since 1985. This makes education unaffordable for many people. Finally, even for those who do manage to get the higher education, the doors of opportunity might not open. Only a little over half of recent college graduates in the United States who get a higher education actually are working in jobs that require that education. This, of course, is not true for the students who graduate from the top institutions, but for many others, they do not get the value for their time and their effort. Tom Friedman, in his recent New York Times article, captured, in the way that no one else could, the spirit behind our effort. He said the big breakthroughs are what happen when what is suddenly possible meets what is desperately necessary. I’ve talked about what’s desperately necessary. Let’s talk about what’s suddenly possible. What’s suddenly possible was demonstrated by three big Stanford classes, each of which had an enrollment of 100,000 people or more. So to understand this, let’s look at one of those classes, the Machine Learning class offered by my colleague and cofounder Andrew Ng. Andrew teaches one of the bigger Stanford classes. It’s a Machine Learning class, and it has 400 people enrolled every time it’s offered. When Andrew taught the Machine Learning class to the general public, it had 100,000 people registered. So to put that number in perspective, for Andrew to reach that same size audience by teaching a Stanford class, he would have to do that for 250 years. Of course, he’d get really bored. So, having seen the impact of this, Andrew and I decided that we needed to really try and scale this up, to bring the best quality education to as many people as we could. So we formed Coursera, whose goal is to take the best courses from the best instructors at the best universities and provide it to everyone around the world for free. We currently have 43 courses on the platform from four universities across a range of disciplines, and let me show you a little bit of an overview of what that looks like. (Video) Robert Ghrist: Welcome to Calculus. Ezekiel Emanuel: Fifty million people are uninsured. Scott Page: Models help us design more effective institutions and policies. We get unbelievable segregation. Scott Klemmer: So Bush imagined that in the future, you’d wear a camera right in the center of your head. Mitchell Duneier: Mills wants the student of sociology to develop the quality of mind … RG: Hanging cable takes on the form of a hyperbolic cosine. Nick Parlante: For each pixel in the image, set the red to zero. Paul Offit: … Vaccine allowed us to eliminate polio virus. Dan Jurafsky: Does Lufthansa serve breakfast and San Jose? Well, that sounds funny. Daphne Koller: So this is which coin you pick, and this is the two tosses. Andrew Ng: So in large-scale machine learning, we’d like to come up with computational … (Applause) DK: It turns out, maybe not surprisingly, that students like getting the best content from the best universities for free. Since we opened the website in February, we now have 640,000 students from 190 countries. We have 1.5 million enrollments, 6 million quizzes in the 15 classes that have launched so far have been submitted, and 14 million videos have been viewed. But it’s not just about the numbers, it’s also about the people. Whether it’s Akash, who comes from a small town in India and would never have access in this case to a Stanford-quality course and would never be able to afford it. Or Jenny, who is a single mother of two and wants to hone her skills so that she can go back and complete her master’s degree. Or Ryan, who can’t go to school, because his immune deficient daughter can’t be risked to have germs come into the house, so he couldn’t leave the house. I’m really glad to say — recently, we’ve been in correspondence with Ryan — that this story had a happy ending. Baby Shannon — you can see her on the left — is doing much better now, and Ryan got a job by taking some of our courses. So what made these courses so different? After all, online course content has been available for a while. What made it different was that this was real course experience. It started on a given day, and then the students would watch videos on a weekly basis and do homework assignments. And these would be real homework assignments for a real grade, with a real deadline. You can see the deadlines and the usage graph. These are the spikes showing that procrastination is global phenomenon. (Laughter) At the end of the course, the students got a certificate. They could present that certificate to a prospective employer and get a better job, and we know many students who did. Some students took their certificate and presented this to an educational institution at which they were enrolled for actual college credit. So these students were really getting something meaningful for their investment of time and effort. Let’s talk a little bit about some of the components that go into these courses. The first component is that when you move away from the constraints of a physical classroom and design content explicitly for an online format, you can break away from, for example, the monolithic one-hour lecture. You can break up the material, for example, into these short, modular units of eight to 12 minutes, each of which represents a coherent concept. Students can traverse this material in different ways, depending on their background, their skills or their interests. So, for example, some students might benefit from a little bit of preparatory material that other students might already have. Other students might be interested in a particular enrichment topic that they want to pursue individually. So this format allows us to break away from the one-size-fits-all model of education, and allows students to follow a much more personalized curriculum. Of course, we all know as educators that students don’t learn by sitting and passively watching videos. Perhaps one of the biggest components of this effort is that we need to have students who practice with the material in order to really understand it. There’s been a range of studies that demonstrate the importance of this. This one that appeared in Science last year, for example, demonstrates that even simple retrieval practice, where students are just supposed to repeat what they already learned gives considerably improved results on various achievement tests down the line than many other educational interventions. We’ve tried to build in retrieval practice into the platform, as well as other forms of practice in many ways. For example, even our videos are not just videos. Every few minutes, the video pauses and the students get asked a question. (Video) SP: … These four things. Prospect theory, hyperbolic discounting, status quo bias, base rate bias. They’re all well documented. So they’re all well documented deviations from rational behavior. DK: So here the video pauses, and the student types in the answer into the box and submits. Obviously they weren’t paying attention. (Laughter) So they get to try again, and this time they got it right. There’s an optional explanation if they want. And now the video moves on to the next part of the lecture. This is a kind of simple question that I as an instructor might ask in class, but when I ask that kind of a question in class, 80 percent of the students are still scribbling the last thing I said, 15 percent are zoned out on Facebook, and then there’s the smarty pants in the front row who blurts out the answer before anyone else has had a chance to think about it, and I as the instructor am terribly gratified that somebody actually knew the answer. And so the lecture moves on before, really, most of the students have even noticed that a question had been asked. Here, every single student has to engage with the material. And of course these simple retrieval questions are not the end of the story. One needs to build in much more meaningful practice questions, and one also needs to provide the students with feedback on those questions. Now, how do you grade the work of 100,000 students if you do not have 10,000 TAs? The answer is, you need to use technology to do it for you. Now, fortunately, technology has come a long way, and we can now grade a range of interesting types of homework. In addition to multiple choice and the kinds of short answer questions that you saw in the video, we can also grade math, mathematical expressions as well as mathematical derivations. We can grade models, whether it’s financial models in a business class or physical models in a science or engineering class and we can grade some pretty sophisticated programming assignments. Let me show you one that’s actually pretty simple but fairly visual. This is from Stanford’s Computer Science 101 class, and the students are supposed to color-correct that blurry red image. They’re typing their program into the browser, and you can see they didn’t get it quite right, Lady Liberty is still seasick. And so, the student tries again, and now they got it right, and they’re told that, and they can move on to the next assignment. This ability to interact actively with the material and be told when you’re right or wrong is really essential to student learning. Now, of course we cannot yet grade the range of work that one needs for all courses. Specifically, what’s lacking is the kind of critical thinking work that is so essential in such disciplines as the humanities, the social sciences, business and others. So we tried to convince, for example, some of our humanities faculty that multiple choice was not such a bad strategy. That didn’t go over really well. So we had to come up with a different solution. And the solution we ended up using is peer grading. It turns out that previous studies show, like this one by Saddler and Good, that peer grading is a surprisingly effective strategy for providing reproducible grades. It was tried only in small classes, but there it showed, for example, that these student-assigned grades on the y-axis are actually very well correlated with the teacher-assigned grade on the x-axis. What’s even more surprising is that self-grades, where the students grade their own work critically — so long as you incentivize them properly so they can’t give themselves a perfect score — are actually even better correlated with the teacher grades. And so this is an effective strategy that can be used for grading at scale, and is also a useful learning strategy for the students, because they actually learn from the experience. So we now have the largest peer-grading pipeline ever devised, where tens of thousands of students are grading each other’s work, and quite successfully, I have to say. But this is not just about students sitting alone in their living room working through problems. Around each one of our courses, a community of students had formed, a global community of people around a shared intellectual endeavor. What you see here is a self-generated map from students in our Princeton Sociology 101 course, where they have put themselves on a world map, and you can really see the global reach of this kind of effort. Students collaborated in these courses in a variety of different ways. First of all, there was a question and answer forum, where students would pose questions, and other students would answer those questions. And the really amazing thing is, because there were so many students, it means that even if a student posed a question at 3 o’clock in the morning, somewhere around the world, there would be somebody who was awake and working on the same problem. And so, in many of our courses, the median response time for a question on the question and answer forum was 22 minutes. Which is not a level of service I have ever offered to my Stanford students. (Laughter) And you can see from the student testimonials that students actually find that because of this large online community, they got to interact with each other in many ways that were deeper than they did in the context of the physical classroom. Students also self-assembled, without any kind of intervention from us, into small study groups. Some of these were physical study groups along geographical constraints and met on a weekly basis to work through problem sets. This is the San Francisco study group, but there were ones all over the world. Others were virtual study groups, sometimes along language lines or along cultural lines, and on the bottom left there, you see our multicultural universal study group where people explicitly wanted to connect with people from other cultures. There are some tremendous opportunities to be had from this kind of framework. The first is that it has the potential of giving us a completely unprecedented look into understanding human learning. Because the data that we can collect here is unique. You can collect every click, every homework submission, every forum post from tens of thousands of students. So you can turn the study of human learning from the hypothesis-driven mode to the data-driven mode, a transformation that, for example, has revolutionized biology. You can use these data to understand fundamental questions like, what are good learning strategies that are effective versus ones that are not? And in the context of particular courses, you can ask questions like, what are some of the misconceptions that are more common and how do we help students fix them? So here’s an example of that, also from Andrew’s Machine Learning class. This is a distribution of wrong answers to one of Andrew’s assignments. The answers happen to be pairs of numbers, so you can draw them on this two-dimensional plot. Each of the little crosses that you see is a different wrong answer. The big cross at the top left is where 2,000 students gave the exact same wrong answer. Now, if two students in a class of 100 give the same wrong answer, you would never notice. But when 2,000 students give the same wrong answer, it’s kind of hard to miss. So Andrew and his students went in, looked at some of those assignments, understood the root cause of the misconception, and then they produced a targeted error message that would be provided to every student whose answer fell into that bucket, which means that students who made that same mistake would now get personalized feedback telling them how to fix their misconception much more effectively. So this personalization is something that one can then build by having the virtue of large numbers. Personalization is perhaps one of the biggest opportunities here as well, because it provides us with the potential of solving a 30-year-old problem. Educational researcher Benjamin Bloom, in 1984, posed what’s called the 2 sigma problem, which he observed by studying three populations. The first is the population that studied in a lecture-based classroom. The second is a population of students that studied using a standard lecture-based classroom, but with a mastery-based approach, so the students couldn’t move on to the next topic before demonstrating mastery of the previous one. And finally, there was a population of students that were taught in a one-on-one instruction using a tutor. The mastery-based population was a full standard deviation, or sigma, in achievement scores better than the standard lecture-based class, and the individual tutoring gives you 2 sigma improvement in performance. To understand what that means, let’s look at the lecture-based classroom, and let’s pick the median performance as a threshold. So in a lecture-based class, half the students are above that level and half are below. In the individual tutoring instruction, 98 percent of the students are going to be above that threshold. Imagine if we could teach so that 98 percent of our students would be above average. Hence, the 2 sigma problem. Because we cannot afford, as a society, to provide every student with an individual human tutor. But maybe we can afford to provide each student with a computer or a smartphone. So the question is, how can we use technology to push from the left side of the graph, from the blue curve, to the right side with the green curve? Mastery is easy to achieve using a computer, because a computer doesn’t get tired of showing you the same video five times. And it doesn’t even get tired of grading the same work multiple times, we’ve seen that in many of the examples that I’ve shown you. And even personalization is something that we’re starting to see the beginnings of, whether it’s via the personalized trajectory through the curriculum or some of the personalized feedback that we’ve shown you. So the goal here is to try and push, and see how far we can get towards the green curve. So, if this is so great, are universities now obsolete? Well, Mark Twain certainly thought so. He said that, “College is a place where a professor’s lecture notes go straight to the students’ lecture notes, without passing through the brains of either.” (Laughter) I beg to differ with Mark Twain, though. I think what he was complaining about is not universities but rather the lecture-based format that so many universities spend so much time on. So let’s go back even further, to Plutarch, who said that, “The mind is not a vessel that needs filling, but wood that needs igniting.” And maybe we should spend less time at universities filling our students’ minds with content by lecturing at them, and more time igniting their creativity, their imagination and their problem-solving skills by actually talking with them. So how do we do that? We do that by doing active learning in the classroom. So there’s been many studies, including this one, that show that if you use active learning, interacting with your students in the classroom, performance improves on every single metric — on attendance, on engagement and on learning as measured by a standardized test. You can see, for example, that the achievement score almost doubles in this particular experiment. So maybe this is how we should spend our time at universities. So to summarize, if we could offer a top quality education to everyone around the world for free, what would that do? Three things. First it would establish education as a fundamental human right, where anyone around the world with the ability and the motivation could get the skills that they need to make a better life for themselves, their families and their communities. Second, it would enable lifelong learning. It’s a shame that for so many people, learning stops when we finish high school or when we finish college. By having this amazing content be available, we would be able to learn something new every time we wanted, whether it’s just to expand our minds or it’s to change our lives. And finally, this would enable a wave of innovation, because amazing talent can be found anywhere. Maybe the next Albert Einstein or the next Steve Jobs is living somewhere in a remote village in Africa. And if we could offer that person an education, they would be able to come up with the next big idea and make the world a better place for all of us. Thank you very much. (Applause)

100 thoughts on “Daphne Koller: What we’re learning from online education

  1. Thank you so so so much Daphne Koller. Hats off for you !
    I wanna hug you..
    Really next Albert Einstein, Steve Jobs may be in the remote villages of the world.
    Inspired by you ma'm ! Lots of love , respect and appreciation for you .

  2. Es la demostracion de amor a la humanidad mas grande que he visto en vida mia.Quizà sea el primer paso para lograr superar nuestros problemas mas graves y conseguir sobrevivir como especie humana. Yo soy un courseriano màs.

  3. Coursera Downloader and Study Companion with support for NPTEL courses too. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/borg-easy-coursera-downloader-gautam-jain?trk=pulse_spock-articles

  4. I can really relate to her anecdote about students taking notes without understanding what the teacher says… It's what happens to me everytime :))

  5. what i would like to say is coursera is place where like minded join each other .Which make learning interesting and which brings miracle solution to the problem

  6. Interesting. very good informations. I have always found there is a barrier of speed of system creation. My idea is not to sign contracts or engage programmers when I needed to establish new eLearning system instance. Each time I needed create a new platform I needed to do that easy and with no additional agenda or time. Therefore I was surprised very positive when I found www.Training-Online.eu  which offers free system creation within few seconds by filling easy form and the system is born.

  7. Excellent! I can't wait to see what all they have to offer, I have been wanting to go back to school however, I can't afford it so hopefully this is the answer.

  8. Forget about this free education thing. They have started to charge for the courses. Its no more free stuff. And the worst part is, they have done this silently, without making much noise and letting people know about there change in policy. The Einstein and Jobs in professors speech have died already in the greed of money! 🙁

  9. Only the one who value the education will understand the value of this talk. Such a big heart, your work is sensational, admiring you!!

  10. There's an amazing point here about Analytics. The data that we can collect through online courses can be so, so useful from an instructional point of view and be crucial tot he course, not just for students (to whom we can give precise feedback), but also for the instructors who can see where the the learner is getting confused and thus revisit the course and make necessary adjustments.

  11. Online education provides a path to education. There are a lot of free courses out there. Getting it from top universities is a bonus and something to add to the resume. Notre Dame has online courses and certificate programs. Go to the FAQ page to learn more. http://www.notredameonline.com/support/faq/

  12. words cannot express my gratitude and appreciation !! Coursera could be a life changing experience for a lot of student around the world !! YOU ARE THE BEST 😀

  13. Excellent openings for all to get great education for free. All foundation courses for students should be available for free.
    I find www.khanacademy.org as an excellent start for many children who want free education.

    Once students have mastered these courses and want to learn more, they should be able to apply to join the Universities if they choose or for reduced costs access upgraded modules from home.

    Visit this- www.khanacademy.org as an excellent start for many children who want free education.

  14. Too bad they became a public Corporation who legally has to maximize profits, now it's basically the same as any other university.

  15. Free education is available now all around the world! I appreciate the opportunity of studying in university, and i hope i can be a life-long learner by using the learning courses and materials online to acquire more knowledge and skills for myself, my family and my community. i believe i would have opportunity in the future to help others all around the world.

  16. I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. This old Chinese proverb even applies to university learning it seems. It is fundamental to all real learning.

  17. i deeply respect the system of 'coursera' ; personalized learning, giving the right to take classes that can ignite people's creativity and peer learning etc. But i have one question, if people don't have computers or smartphone, is there no opportunity to access the great 'coursera'?So still, there are poeple who don't have the opportunity to make their lives better and change their familly and their countries. we should think about that point!!!!!

  18. What an incredibly interesting, inspiring and motivating video on the revolution of education. Watching this brings so much hope for so many people around the world. Thank you!

  19. After 4 years we all know how this ended up. Free content is hidden and restricted. Widely accessible free content is gone.

  20. As someone whom works a lot in a variety of jobs, online learning is so helpful I have zero time to go to a school, but I can study at night after work. I have taken several fantastic certificate and non certificate courses through MOOC. But some of the courses do have a fee thus it is not completely universally accessible, scholarships are available. ie. The business courses are approx. $105 which could be too much for some people, perhaps they should all be free and funded by philanthropy. I personally think post secondary schooling should very accessible thus free covered by gov't and private donors, as is done in Germany. There are multiple benefits to the greater public good via having free education for everyone.

  21. Daphne Kollner habla acerca de la accesibilidad a la educación de alta calidad, poniendo como ejemplo Sudáfrica y las mejores universidades de Estados Unidos, por distintas razones ennumerables a algunas personas no les es posible acceder a una educación de calidad lo que representa un número pequeño de personas a las que sí. Así que surge la idea de tomar las mejores clases de los mejores profesores de las mejores Instituciones y reproducirlas en línea, gratuitamente, con la idea de con esto llegar significativamente a más personas que con el método tradicional dentro de un aula.
    Han encontrado que la diferencia entre la plataforma que ofrece y la educación por internet que ha existido desde tiempo atrás es que tiene tiempos determinados específicos, semejantes a un calendario escolarizado, con pruebas, clases y término específico, lo que disminuye la postergación, la cual es un fenómeno global. La individualización de los cursos y la entrega de certificados con valor real. La incoporaicón de cursos en línea da cabida a la innovación educativa, pertinente con el plan de mejora, el uso y aprovechamiento de las TICS permite el aprendizaje dinámico, actualizado y novedoso.Los docentes deben de reflexionar y utilizar las herramientas que tienen a su alcance y sobre todo, asumir que hoy en día se trabaja en una red de aprendizaje, lo cual da cabida a la colaboración y retroalimentación educativa.

  22. Thank You Daphne Koller. I am infatuated with your scope and vision. I just enrolled in Music Theory from Coursera, sponsored by the University of Edinburgh.

  23. I am not new to online courses but a big thanks for the lecture explaining the details of Coursera usage. I'd suggest that the speaker now focus on breathing exercises to help her deliver her speeches more smoothly.

  24. Daphne, a quick note on (13:59): by the time when you gave the talk, Czechoslovakia had ceased existing for about 20 years. Just to remind you of fluidity of the world's political geography when you mention those students in Eastern Europe flocking to Coursera like it's their last resort.

  25. The adrenaline of speaking in front of many people weights in but the speech is great. Coursera, Khan Academy and many more platforms or free courses from universities are making the difference for many students now. Raspberry Pi's technology also helps people to get affordable technology to connect them with online education. On the other side learning distribution systems like Ayris (https://goayris.com/) are changing the small and mid-sized companies learning environments. It's amazing where things are going! We need more people constantly engaged in education!

  26. Stanford class rooms have 400 students for machine learning. Coursera provides a similar educational experience to 100,000 folks. Result is that the value of the educational experience drops to almost nothing, and the supply of entry level trained folks overwhelms the industrial need. So industry hires the 400 students from Stanford, then to fill the 400 more openings they have, the ask for x years of experience, and complains about the lack of experienced engineers in machine learning and the need to bring the top folks from all around the world to work the jobs here.

    If the role of universities were to provide education, then competition would have prevented the huge inflation in the cost of a university education in recent years. But really, the function is to filter out some folks from the best jobs. Since competition is greater, the value of getting through the filter is high.

    I would think that at some point, some company will stop hiring university educated, will go heavy into broadly hiring, providing training, and firing low performers. But the name of that company is not going to be Apple, Microsoft, Google, or Facebook.

  27. Stop complaining that it isn't free anymore. This video was published in 2012. They need to charge people else they cannot mantain a site with countless courses.

  28. This could become the tool of the powerful, used to indoctrinate the masses. How does one prevent this from becoming a tool of misdirection or corruption?

  29. Nonsense. This is not true. This is not free. They have conformed and contributed to the high cost of Education.

  30. A brilliant presentation by a visionary innovator. In many ways, my redesigned membership community will use this global concept to culturally connect members around the world. www dot mssconnect dot com is my launching pad for this online learning community. Thank you, Dr. Koller, for helping to make this concept possible.

  31. Dr. Koller is going to really make the machine of higher learning upset. I love these courses. Opportunities like this are an awesome blessing for the poor and intelligent community who would like to contribute to society with their gifts. Thank you for designing this.

  32. Dear Daphne. I found your opening comments about South Africa a powerfully complex example to motivate your argument for free online education. I have just visited a town in the Northern part of South Africa where children have to hitchhike 40 km to high school if they want to go. Most don't. There is no school bus and no money to get one. This is in the Ubuntu municipality, named after Mandela's popular phrase describing the people's benevolence towards each other. Ubuntu municipality is bankrupt and one of the most corrupt municipalities in South Africa. There is no money for a bus or a driver and so there will probably never be a school bus and only a small handful of determined kids will get to high school. Would online learning change their lives? Sure if their public schooling taught them basic computer skills and if there was access to computers and data. I recently finished teaching a digital skills workshop with students from a public school, aged 12-15 and most did not know how to google or use a printer. For online access, South Africa has some of the highest prices for data in the world. So back to your use of the powerfully emotive example of South Africa. Twenty-four years ago the ANC became the government of South Africa. The ANC now run this country and invest, or don't invest in education. It is no longer making sense to use Apartheid as the only reason for what doesn't work. The problem now lies in massive corruption and students and young learners in small towns in South Africa are losing. It will be awhile before online education can benefit them.

  33. Daphne, your facts are not correct about the education in South Africa. Thought I would just let you know, so please do your research before you speak.

  34. Highly inspiring presentation that talks to very critical human rights issues of universal access and lifelong learning. With such initiatives the world would really be a better place to live. I will certainly visit the coursera site.

  35. Дафна Коллер чудесный человек, курсера открыла для меня целый мир новых возможностей. Спасибо!
    Это мой любимый сайт

  36. If schools aren't going to use any of their facilities for fee for service research to the local governments, then how can you possibly make a claim to society at large in public schools that what you do is beneficial?

  37. What we really need are courses on discipline. There's lot of information and education all over the internet yet people still spend more time with games and social networking than actual learning, then complain when they can't pay their bills and have to work at a job they despise. We have a real problem of making ourselves do things we really need to do for our long term betterment. We all need help in this area. Basically, most of us quit way too soon and because of this, we don't give ourselves a chance to get really good at something. It takes a while for most of us to find things we're good at. If we don't learn about many things the chance of finding our talents is rather remote. Wealthy parents have the ability to expose their children to a much wider variety of areas than poorer parents. Online education can bridge this gap. Online education is really the hope for the future. But so far its been a dismal failure as people would rather play and be entertained than learn and improve. Maybe we need courses for snowflakes. And we're all snowflakes part of the day.

  38. Watch a 30 mins video in 3 mins. The BEST extension in google chrome store. www.threelly.com
    Plus,the state of the art Artificial Intelligence algorithms automatically analyzes videos to locate and pull the precise location of key points of interest like – topics, scenes, people, sentiments, brands, expressions, labels and much more. Allowing you to rapidly gain intelligent insights from any video.

  39. Love Coursera! I'm housebound & unable to sit in a class. I loved my classes at our local CC, the mean age was 33 & it was wonderful. Personally, I detest multiple choice tests; give me written tests where I can explain in depth & connect with like- minded others.

  40. Executive Mobility-July
    * NY Public Library Offers Digital Collection; Apps; Adult Education & Professional Development

  41. I'm preparing education start up just like coursera, mooc but with little different perspective. Her talk gave me inspiration.

  42. Bottom line with online courses is that the majority do not complete them. Just because it's online and free, doesn't mean people will complete them. That isn't an argument for pay model that is currently around although it does simplify it. Bottom line with any kind of education whether offline or online(especially) is focus. You have to dedicate it MIND space, time, focus. The idea that you can do 5 minutes here and 5 minutes there… soon the novelty wears off and you abandon it.

  43. The reason education costs have increased so much is because of the ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF jobs ! These unnecessary full time positions have REPLACED the full time TENURE positions. The quality of education suffers, less full time instructors offered, so that we can have staff members sitting around on facebook and slacking off in the office, while thousands of adjunct are having a crisis, no insurance, so that idiots can sit around in the office and absorb adjunct faculty insurance and benefits.

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